The Driving Factors Of Immigrant Entrepreneurship

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1.0 Introduction
Immigrant entrepreneurship is a relatively new phenomenon that explores the setting up and managing of business by immigrants in their adoptive countries. Brush et al. (2010) note that immigrant entrepreneurship has become a type of growth sector because both the host and ethnic countries benefits from it. The driving factors of immigrant entrepreneurship are distinct from other forms of entrepreneurship because they accrue from necessity, and the need to survive in dismal employment situations. Bandyopadhyay et al. (2017) posits that immigrants are drawn to specific countries – mostly the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries – due to the push factors such as unemployment and lack of amenities in the home country and pull factors such as potential for employment and better service provision in the host country. However, these expectations may not always be met compelling the immigrant to look for other sources of income through entrepreneurship. Australia’s “Australian’s First” policy for job employment provides an apt example of natives receiving first priority in job selections (Karp, 2017). Hence, with economic insecurity and lack of employment opportunities, immigrants are forced to seek alternative income means such as self-employment. Zimmerman (2016) considers immigrant risk taking in unfamiliar territories with minimum resources as fulfilling the entrepreneurial characteristics. The difference, however, is that immigrant entrepreneurship is different from other forms of entrepreneurship, particularly in terms of funding, performance and survival rate. The European Commission (2003) remarked that immigrant businesses in Europe showcase a potent entrepreneurial capacity and potential. This thesis aims to assess the extent to which immigrant entrepreneurship differs from other entrepreneurial forms. This will be achieved through a review of existing narratives on the subject.
2.0 Existing Literature Overview
The existing literature on entrepreneurship stems from economical conceptual frameworks developed in the early twentieth century by Schumpeter, Cole, Kirzner among others. Fayolle (2014) notes that entrepreneurship has gained considerable study
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