The Early Childhood Years For Children

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The early childhood years for children are a crucial time for cognitive and social development. Unfortunately, impoverished children are at a greater risk for cognitive and social deficiencies. Previous studies conducted on scaffolding shows that it can support cognitive and social development. Scaffolding is a process when one person supports another in reaching a goal. Typically during the scaffolding process one person is more experienced and the other is inexperienced, such as a tutor and an apprentice. Scaffolding research is also supported by Lev Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development, which involves skills a child is developing, but may need assistance. Scaffolding can occur through verbal and non-verbal language. In
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The participants were 54 mother and child pairs from a Head Start program that participated in two play sessions. However, only 51 pairs completed both sessions. The children were 4-years old, and the mother ages ranged from 22-45 years old. The majority of the children were white with 78%, 8% were African American, and 6% were of mixed ethnic groups, and lastly, only 4% were Latino, and 2% were Asian. The majority of the mothers were white with 86%, 6% were African American, and lastly, 2% were Asian, Native American and ethnicity that was not provided (p.291).
During the first session, the mother and child pairs were randomly selected to be a part of the experimental or control group. The experimental group first engaged in free play for 5 minutes, and then the mother engaged in scaffolding to solve a problem-solving task for 25 minutes. The control group first engaged in free play as well, and then the mothers sat across the room while the child independently performed a problem-solving task. All children were allotted the same amount of time to perform the task (p.291).
During the second session, both groups of children did not have there mother’s present, and were to interact with an unfamiliar female. Now the children were put into pairs with a new adult. The children were now the tutors, and the new adult was the apprentice. First, the pairs were given 10 minutes to engage in free play to become comfortable with each other. The children were also told
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