History and literature have developed in a parallel manner, as organisms often co-evolve with each other. With the publication of Darwin’s groundbreaking work, the Origin of Species, a new group of people, the Social Darwinists, applied the theory of natural selection to social hierarchy. A most notable Social Darwinist, Herbert Spencer, coined the term “survival of the fittest”, implying that people in higher social groups were more “fit” to survive than those who were in lower social groups (Bannister, “Social Darwinism”). This idea of social evolution contributed to the dehumanization of people. More social theorists, scientists, and
Spencer applied the principles of Darwinism to human social, political and economic issues and proclaimed that the survival of the fittest applies to human societies which became Social Darwinism. In John Offer’s “Critical Assessments of Leading Sociologists” he traces Spencer’s influence and dissects various points made by Herbert Spencer himself. He quotes Herbert Spencer when analyzing Spencer’s perspective of Social Darwinism. “The prosperity of a species is best supervised when among adults each experiences the good and evil results of his own nature and consequent conduct.” Spencer also states “It is much better that the ruminant animal, when deprived by age of the vigor which made its existence a pleasure, should be killed by some beast of the prey, than that it should linger out a life made painful by infirmities, and eventually die of starvation.” It is at this point that Spencer begins to cross Darwinism’s take on natural selection to social conditions. While Spencer is still speaking in reference of animals, he describes the death of animals as a means of relieving their pain and suffering. This is where Spencer begins to speak in reference to humans. “A sad population of imbeciles would our schemers fill the world with, could their plans last. A sorry kind of human constitution would they make for us – a constitution continually going wrong, and needing to be set right again – a constitution ever
“It takes a village to raise a child.” I never quite understood that saying when I was growing up, but my experiences teaching and working in school settings have showed me how true it really is. Obtaining a degree in school psychology will allow me to give the support that students, families and educators need to ensure that every student will thrive.
Social Darwinism came to popularity in 1859 when Charles Darwin, a British naturalist, published his book called On the Origin of Species about his theory of “Darwinism”. This theory was very popular between the years 1870-1890; it spanned until the early 1900s (around 1910). Social Darwinism is any conviction or hypothesis that endeavors to clarify human culture as far as regular determination specifies the hypothesis that people, ethnic gatherings, and so on make progress or predominance as a result of inborn hereditary prevalence and a resultant upper hand. The hypothesis of Social Darwinism said that the people who were feeble were getting smaller in quantity as the more solid people developed in power. Herbert Spencer, a British philosopher and sociologist, acquired Darwin’s theory of evolution and twisted the idea around to make his idea of “survival of the fittest” connect with Darwin’s theory. Spencer said: “The wealthy and powerful were the ‘fittest,’ people endowed with innate intelligence, strength, and the adaptability that enabled them to succeed in the competitive world of business” (Visions of America).
Phinney & Ong’s (2007) article discusses both the social and developmental perspectives of psychology in relation to the various components and measurements that are commonly used to identify ethnic identity within groups. To aid in their discussion, the researchers start by analyzing the available studies whose research effectually laid the groundwork for the development of both theoretical models and applicable assessments concerning individual and group ethnic identification, such as the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) and the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure – Revised (MEIM-R). The purpose of this research was for the researchers to be able to draw their own conclusions regarding modern theories of ethnic identity so that
Biological psychology is the study of how biology affects a number of psychological processes i.e. how the mind affects the body (Schacter, Gilbert, Wegner & Hood 2015). The study of the mind has had many influential figures throughout history that often use each other’s ideas as a stepping stone to further advance psychology, some of the first being Plato and Aristotle. Plato believed in nativism and theorised some skills and characteristics are innate and a person is born with them (Schacter et al, 2015). Aristotle, however, was in favour of philosophical empiricism i.e. that all knowledge is acquired through experience, yet current scientists do not consider that nativism and empiricism are entirely accurate (Schacter et al, 2015). Aristotle also believed that the brain existed to cool the blood, as during that time people were sceptical that an organ could be responsible for behaviour (Kolb, Whishaw & Teskey 2016). The next major advancement in biological psychology was the introduction of phrenology by Francis Gall, Gall’s theory suggested that all psychological capabilities had a specific place in the brain (Schacter et al, 2015). This theory later turned out to be correct, although was overshadowed by Gall’s insistence that he could state a person’s character dependant on the size of lumps and indentations on a person’s skull, which he thought would represent the size of that brain region beneath (Schacter et al, 2015). Due to this, in spite of a large following, phrenology was quickly discredited. Biologist Pierre Flourens, unhappy with Gall’s research, began removing localized areas of the brain in various animals to observe their behaviour (Schacter et al, 2015). Flourens then found that animal’s movements differed to those with intact brains. This mirrored a situation for surgeon Paul Broca with whom one of his patients had damage to the left side of
Throughout the course of history, the phenomenon of psychology has drawn countless psychologists and scientists to further comprehend the depths and fascinations of the human mind and body. Using experimentation as a source of obtaining and recording desired information regarding the new realizations of the mind, cognitive scientists continue to fathom at the intricate revelations the mind has to offer. Although the complexities of the mind have brought scientists to puzzling conclusions, scientists have used a series of experimental steps to conclude how and why the processes of the brain can change the actions and personalities of an individual.
* Predict: Offering predictions (or hypotheses) about how a given condition or set of conditions will affect
October 22nd, 2012 Chapter 1- What is psychology? [pp. 1-23] LO1: Psychology as a Science (p. 4) * Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. * Seeks to describe, explain, predict, and control behavior and mental processes. * Theory
In chapter 8 of Handbook of Emotions, The Evolutionary Psychology of the Emotions and Their Relationship to Internal Regulatory Variables, Tooby & Cosmides (2008) thoroughly discuss the theories of how emotions came to be. The overall conclusion is that emotions did not inadvertently occur, but instead were specifically designed and evolved to solve distinct issues that would affect the probability of fitness. Emotions evolved to utilize physical responses based on environmental cues in order to promote the individual’s overall success.
In the study by McDonald and Borsook (2010), thirty students (18 female, and 11 males) from an introductory psychology course were offered course credit to participate in the study. They each were assigned to a two different study conditions. Each of the students took questionnaires, including an attachment style questionnaire at the outset of the study, and each were randomly selected to a different testing scenario. Some were selected to be part of a positive social interaction, and some to a negative social interaction. The study concluded that individuals with avoidant attachment responded positively, to positive social interactions. This contradicted the belief that these individuals hold on to feelings of superiority, and shy away from
From the dawn of man, to modern times, the human race has accomplished so many scientific achievements that it are spectacular. But one thing in particular that has puzzled humans over the centuries is the brain, and how it affects human behavior. It wasn’t until the late 1800s when Wilhelm Wundt established the first psychological research laboratory at Leipzig, that experimentation and research began in order to fully understand the human mind. Afterwards, many other psychologist such as Sigmund Freud also began research as well, performing experiments and creating their own theories on certain behaviors. The controversy started when psychologist then began to perform unethical experiments in order to advance in the field of psychology. The
Herbert Spencer along with Walter Bagehot and William Graham Sumner in the United States were all known as the social Darwinists, they applied
Chapter one of Experience Psychology has shown me theoretical and historical perspectives of psychology and has given me basic knowledge of research methods. In learning this I have come to notice these elements of psychology in the Netflix original show Bates Motel.
Psychology is diverse, and there are many diverse specialty areas available to individuals seeking a career in the field of psychology. Most Psychologists choose to specialize in subfields that focus on specific subjects. Obtaining a profession in any of the specialty areas would require graduate study in that area of interest. Some professionals have a broad general knowledge, are skilled in several areas, and work with a range of clients. Some are specialist in treating a specific type of psychological disorder, or work with a specific age group. For those interested in specializing in a psychology career, developmental Psychology is one of the many fields available.