The ongoing conflict between India and Pakistan has been the subject of speculation and study by political scientists and historians for a number of years. The ethnic conflict seems to have been sparked at the very beginning in 1947, when the British used Muslim and Hindu mercenaries against each other before the area finally split into today’s countries of India and Pakistan (Spiegel et al. 2015, 185). The timeline since then has been full of conflicts, both major and minor. Brutal tactics used by security forces and a high rate of unemployment have added to the issue (BBC News 2016).
Conflict perspectives are often viewed as the opposite of the structure-functional viewpoint; meaning, not all family practices are good or beneficial for each family member. Conflict is often viewed in a negative manner, but there are many benefits of having healthy conflict in the home. In my family experience, conflict has brought compromise, solutions, and opportunities to learn other's perspectives. Conflict has also brought a better understanding of how to improve relationships and solve disagreements.
My essay is about how conflict can affect the people involved. This can be linked back to the novel Tomorrow, When The War Began as the protagonists of this story were all faced with a new and uncomfortable situation that they had to figure out how to survive in and grow from. It is likely that the characters from this novel will experience a form of mental illness as their lives progress after being involved in such a large scale conflict at such a young age. My essay delves into the emotional and mental struggles that people can be faced with after experiencing a traumatic event such as war. I also explore some of the many types of conflict and the way that each one can be dealt with. I chose to write an essay for this task as I thought that an essay could be a good way to get information across while being fully factual. This piece covers how people can be affected by the conflicts that can arise in everyday life.
Disputes over land seem to be a catalyst for almost every hostility and war since the dawn of time. The addition of politics and religion into the matter only serves to aggravate an already tense situation. Kashmir knows this all too well. The conflict between Hindus and Muslims seems to be an ever reoccurring battle. This is also evidenced in population battles. Hindus make up the social majority of the population of India by almost eighty percent. Feelings of tension and uneasiness are a natural reaction to being dominated by a majority and are a problem unto itself.
The years subsequent the war, Britain kept their promise to India. In return for military labor and free access to commodities throughout the war, Britain would relinquished their hold on the territory thus, allowing it its freedom. In 1947, British India was partitioned into ‘India and Pakistan’ and soon after, was given its independence as a solitary state apart from Pakistan. Although this was what the Indian Independence Movement aspired for, violence between Muslims, Sikhs and Hindus quickly arose (Pierce). The conflict sparked what became the determining factor in the separation of the two states, independently India, and Pakistan. India and its neighboring regions were flooded with mass exodus, people who believed that a Hindu India, and a Muslim/Sikh Pakistan was the best possible way to begin independence packed their things and left, seeking the land of their religious majority. Over 14.5 million people crossed borders. Nearby in Burma (what is modern day Myanmar), Japan had invaded with the assumption that they could easily take hold of the Burmese colony, which was incredibly blessed with
Conflict in the Middle East has occurred for many centuries. It’s been between Muslims, Christians and even Jews. An example of their conflict is the believed claims on Jerusalem, one of the oldest cities in the world. Jews and Muslims both believe they have religious claims on Jerusalem. Jerusalem has been divided between Israel and Palestine for almost 70 years. Each religion, Islam and Judaism, recognize Jerusalem as a holy place. In the middle of the 20th century, Jewish settlers pushed Muslim Arabs out of their homes and recognized Jerusalem on their land. Most currently, on December 6th, the current president, Donald Trump, broke with previous United States foreign policy and proclaimed that the United States would distinguish Israel’s
India and Pakistan are built from the same foundational nation of India before Partition; thus, their histories are irrevocably bound together despite their contemporary violence and distrust towards each other. India was once colonized by the British for three centuries, known as the “jewel in the British crown” for its wealth in resources and spices. Regarding India’s independence from the British Empire in 1947, a bitter victory emerged as the Partition of India
The creation of two sovereign states is the only possibility of a peaceful end to the conflict over historical Palestine in the Middle East. To achieve this, a third-party must offer enough incentive to both the Arabic and Jewish states and create a sovereign Palestinian state. This is not a very probable outcome, as the conflict is rooted in the peoples’ traditions and beliefs making it much harder to compromise. I predict this conflict will end in the overwhelming takeover of the Palestinian and Holy Land area by the militarily superior Israelites and the trampling of the Arab people.
The 1935 Government Act of India proposes more governmental reforms and allows for an assembly made up of Indian but it is rejected by Indian nationalists who want dominion status granted to them immediately. Beginning in 1946, the Muslim League begins to advocate for an independent Muslim state, which causes widespread panic. India receives its independence from Great Britain in 1947 but as their last major act the British governors separate India into two new countries: India and Pakistan. Many people are forced to leave their homes in order to get to the new country and refugees become an issue in both countries. Widespread fighting breaks out along the borders as people try to get to the country that corresponds with their religion. The new governments struggle to agree on who will get what parts of the natural resources, military and financial resources along with the regions of Jammu and Kashmir. Great Britain sold Kashmir to a maharajah during the colonial era and as they were withdrawing, gave him the option to going to either country. Most other states sided with religions but Kashmir was ruled by a Hindu yet had a predominantly Muslim population. The maharajah hesitates and is forced to leave the region. He signs over the territory to India and Pakistan sends troops to protect the Muslims in that area. War breaks out and continues for three years until a ceasefire is declared and
He signed the Instrument of Accession, relinquishing Kashmir to India on October 26. Subsequently, Indian and Pakistani forces fought their first war over Kashmir from 1947-48. India took the dispute to the United Nations in January 1948, and in a resolution dated August 13, 1948, the UN asked Pakistan to remove their troops from Kashmir, after which India was to remove a bulk of its forces as well. Once this happened, a "free and fair" referendum was to be held that would allow the Kashmiri people to decide their future. Nonetheless, the UN mandate proved to be ineffective, as the main provision for the referendum—the withdrawal of Pakistani troops from Kashmir—was never fulfilled. Since then, rival territorial claims over Kashmir have remained the main contention between India and Pakistan.
Kashmir is conflict territory after the partition of India and Pakistan. Conflict is not only between India and Pakistan but also India and the religious militants. Religious Militants are conducting a jihad to govern by the religious law. Historically, Kashmir included Sufis Muslim not orthodox Muslim. Numerous international events had influenced in the growth of Islamic fundamentalism in Kashmir. Jihad is not originally from Kashmir but they are foreign militancy bought during the end of the Soviet –Afghanistan War. Additionally, they are trained in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Pakistan Inter service Intelligence helped them to incorporate into organized militant groups. Pakistan helped Jihad group with full moral,
What did you learn about India that you think is relevant to this course? (Mention at least 3 separate topics and write a paragraph for each one)
Throughout history, South Asia has struggled to protect its’ borders from both foreigners and their own states. India, especially, has been known for it’s long history of dealing with security issues which has weakened the state. Conflicts risen from affairs such as the Partition have caused civilian battles that India struggled to contain. Other regional conflicts such as the Kashmir conflict and Indo-Pakistani war has led to India’s involvement and struggle to protect their own borders and welfare of their people. India has been forced to deal with maintaining stability not only within their own state but between themselves and other states as well. Despite India’s strain to provide welfare and security for their people, superpowers such as the United States and China view it as a legitimate state and worth having a relationship with. The dynamic of India’s insecurity yet legitimacy as a global force has coined the country to be known as a “strong-weak” state. India has the ability to be seen as a dominating state not only internationally, but in South Asia as well if they were able to overcome their security issues. The multidimensional insecurity of India is the main reason the state is a strong-weak state.
The Kashmir dispute dates from 1947. The partition of the Indian sub-continent along religious lines led to the formation of India and Pakistan. Because of its location, Kashmir could choose to join either India or Pakistan. Pakistan fails to recognize the Instrument of Accession signed by Maharaja Hari Singh on October 26, 1947 ceding Kashmir to India as they believe it was signed for the sole purpose of military assistance. Many wars have been
No better understanding of the Kashmir issue could be achieved, other than studying the issue within the context of colonialism and then the eventual process of decolonization. In the 17th and 18th century, colonialism had reached its zenith and almost every known territory on planet earth was in some way or the other was related to a colonial power. The idea of self-determination in the modern-era is in fact the product of the concept of political sovereignty as developed after the Treaty of Westphalia. Then came the Industrial Revolution and during and after the revolution, the colonies slowly gravitated towards the idea of self-determination, as they became more aware of their rights.