The Effect Of Enzymes On Bacterial Cells, Namely Environments With Varying Phs ( Thomasch )

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Introduction/Hypothesis: This experiment was conducted to observe the effects of certain factors on enzymatic activity in yeast cells, namely environments with varying pHs (Thomasch). Enzymes play a large role in many different biochemical processes that occur throughout many different organisms. As a distinct subcategory of proteins, they are composed in the same manner as any other protein, with amino/carboxyl groups, and variable side chains that ultimately determine their structure, shape, and specificity as to what they can catalyze. Metabolic processes in organisms are inefficient by nature, and can take extremely long periods of time to complete even with ideal environmental factors. Enzymes aid these metabolic processes by…show more content…
In an ideal situation, a substrate temporarily binds to an enzyme’s active site using weak, non-covalent forces, the enzyme lowers the activation energy of the reaction, and the products of the reaction detach from the enzyme; this allows for the enzyme to be re-used by other substrates of the same nature. It is important to note that since enzymes are classified as proteins, they denature and lose function in the same ways that proteins do. Many different factors may inhibit the rate of enzymatic activity
In this specific experiment, the pH of the environment in which the reaction took place was altered in order to observe how the rate of the enzyme catalase’s activity would be affected. Like most other enzymes, catalase performs optimally at a pH of 7. For the purposes of this experiment, the varying pH levels were assigned as the independent variable and the rate of enzymatic activity was the dependent variable. From a molecular standpoint, pH levels can change the shape of an enzyme, causing the active site’s shape to change and not allowing the substrate to fit in correctly. The pH levels may also change properties of the substrate, in which case it may not bind properly and result in an ineffective catalyzation (Nishiura). In this way, varying the pHs allows for the rate of enzymatic activity to be observed since there will be an optimal pH at which the enzyme and substrate’s shape and integral properties are retained. Any deviation from this pH will

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