Myotonic Dystrophy, or Myotonia, is the delayed relaxation of a muscle after it has been contracted. For example a person may not be able to release their grip on a doorknob or handle. Myotonia, unlike Duchenne and Becker’s Muscular Dystrophy, affects the upper body. More specifically, the hands, face, neck, and forearms. Myotonia also affects feet as well. Myotonia doesn’t actually show up until approximately nineteen years of age, and luckily it does not shorten a person’s lifespan (“Myotonic Dystrophy”).
Myasthenia gravis is a disease that affects voluntary muscles of the body; it causes the weakening of the muscles. In this essay we will talk about how to treat myasthenia gravis, the symptoms and causes
B. Walking becomes difficult, if a fall occurs, the person may not be able to stand back up alone. Driving is relinquished. Weakness in swallowing muscle may cause choking, and greater difficulty eating and managing saliva.
It happens when your nerve endings fail to interact properly with your muscles. MG usually affects the muscles of the eyes, face, neck, arms, and legs. MG is most common in young women 20 to 30 years of age, and in men 60 to 70 years of age.(Myasthenia) What makes this relevant is that Myasthenia Gravis can be developed in the human body if you are exposed to neurotoxins like Sarin. On base by the Syrian border, sirens were triggered daily and the officials at the base said that they were false alarms even though they knew that they were not. “A woman named Tracy Elledge, a former combat engineer and one of the veterans I interviewed, said, “Alarms went off all the time.… Our officers told us they were false and to disconnect
M.S., as some would call it, also known as multiple sclerosis is a neurological disease. This disease, in particular, could also be viewed as an autoimmune disorder. It is not nearly as fatal as the sexually transmitted disease (AIDS), yet it can be just as debilitating. What exactly is Multiple Sclerosis? Multiple sclerosis is a disease in which the immune system malfunctions and begins to attack the myelin sheath. The myelin sheath is an insulating cover
The structure of neuromuscular junction consists of a neuron and skeletal muscle cell. The motor neurons, which arise from the spinal cord, supply the skeletal muscle fibers. The neuromuscular junction is un-myelin nerve with a bulb shape at the endings that contract the muscle fiber. The schwann cells form a covering over the postsynaptic membrane and nerve membrane of the fiber that is located under the terminal and is categorized as a post-junction folds. The area between the folds and the bulbs create the synaptic cleft. This consists of proteins and proteoglycans. The enzyme acetylcholinesterase; exist only at high levels in the synaptic basal lamina (UMN,
Myotonic mucular dytrophy- develops slowly and can be caused through genetics. It is the most typical form of muscular dystrophy found in adults beginning to become afflicted. Muscles within the face and neck are the first to contract it. Myotonic MD is associated with difficulty with muscle relaxation following contractions. Commonly known by its nickname "Steinert's Disease".
Myasthenia gravis [MG] is a rare, autoimmune neuromuscular disorder. The incidence rates has been reported as 2-7/10000 in central and western Virginia ( Thanvi ,2004).The onset of [MG] is depends on age and gender .In patients younger than 40 years, women are more susceptible than man to [MG],with a ratio of 7:3 :Above the age 50 [MG] are slightly more common in men with a ratio 3:2.Myasthenia gravis are very rare in children.Juvinile [MG] is an autoimmune disorder ,while congenital [MG] results from genetic mutations that impair neuromuscular transmission. It has been suggested that incidence of [MG] falls after 70 years of age. A recent study using AChR antibody as a diagnostic
Although patients can be preliminarily diagnosed with the syndrome based on an analysis of the physical symptoms, two tests can be used to confirm the diagnosis of GBS. The first is a lumbar puncture, or spinal tap, in order to obtain a small amount of spinal fluid for analysis. The spinal fluid of those with GBS often contains more protein than usual. The second is an electromyogram (EMG), which is an electrical measure of nerve conduction and muscle activity. (3) (4) The symptoms of GBS begin with numbness and tingling in the fingers and toes leading to weakness in the arms, legs, face, and breathing muscles. The weakness begins in the lower portion of the body and rapidly moves upward. This weakness eventually leads to loss of sensation in the affected areas; although a number of cases are mild, temporary limb paralysis is not uncommon. In the milder cases, the numbness can only cause difficulty in walking, "requiring sticks, crutches, or a walking frame." (3) Pain is not uncommon, and abnormal sensations, such as the feeling of "pins-and-needles," can affect both sides of the body equally. Loss
Neuromyotonia is an extremely unusual disorder, where impulsive motor unit are constantly firing and activating the muscle fibers. Neuromyotonia has several symptoms but the most common ones are muscle pains and twitching. The condition affects the voltage-gated potassium channels, by reducing the number of voltage gated potassium-complex resulting in prolonged depolarization of the motor nerve terminal and excessive acetylcholine release. Treatment depends on the varying symptoms from person to person but usually people are prescribed with medication or undergo a plasma exchange.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an acquired demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that typically is diagnosed in the second or third decade of life. Normally, nerves are enclosed in myelin sheaths that help facilitate transmission of nerve impulses within the CNS and the peripheral nervous system throughout the body. In patients with MS, the myelin sheath is damaged and eventually degenerates, causing patches of scar tissue called plaques or lesions to occur anywhere randomly on the myelin sheath (Ruto, 2013). This results in impaired nerve conductivity, which interferes with message transmission between the brain and the other parts of the body. As a result, impulse transmission is altered, distorted, short-circuited, or completely absent. This interference in impulse transmission creates muscle weakness, muscle imbalance, and possibly muscle spasms with partial or complete paralysis. Multiple sclerosis also can result in visual impairment and alteration of cognitive abilities, as well as pain, numbness, or tingling sensations (Ruto, 2013).
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack myelin sheath causing neurological damage to areas of the brain and causes neurological deterioration. In the brain the myelin sheath is involved with what allows for communication between brain and the body. As the disease progresses the sheath deteriorates the neurons where the myelin sheath is found is damaged, causing a break or loss of information when the brain is trying to communicate with the brain. As the central nervous system (CNS) is deteriorating it causes permanent damage that is incurable. The symptoms are not as
Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) is a rare autoimmune disease. This is where an individual’s own immune system attacks and destroy healthy body tissue. The exact cause of this syndrome is unknown. However, once triggered the immune system begins to attack the myelin sheath in the brain, particularly, your peripheral nervous system (PNS). The PNS connects the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system – CNS) to the rest of the body. The myelin sheath main function is to ensure fast propagation of nerve impulses. When damaged it can often result in muscle weakness or paralysis.
Some symptoms of Myasthenia gravis can be having droopy eyes, double vision, partial paralysis of eye movement, problems in jaw and/or chewing something, and fatigue in the neck. Some causes for this disease are unclear but the researchers are saying that maybe the viruses and bacteria are the ones triggering the autoimmune response in the body. They also think that the thymus gland might play a role in this forming of the disease. Some risk factors would be getting the Myasthenia gravis when a family member suffered from rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, and lupus may have a more increased rate of getting the disease. A diagnosis procedure will include a check up with a neurologist and have a physical exam with him or her. They will see how weak one is. One will also do a blood test to detect the amount of antibodies one has in their body and seeing if they have a positive result or a negative result. Positive result is a confirmation of being diagnosed with Myasthenia gravis. If one gets a negative, that person will go through electro diagnostictesting to measure the amount of electrical signals one has in their muscle. Then he or she will go through MRI scans along with a CT scan and doing a chest
Also balance disorder, fatigue, lightheadedness, or vertigo.Here are some more muscle weakness or numbness and numbness or weakness. difficulty speaking, slurred speech, or speech and pins and needles or reduced sensation of touch.Finally difficulty swallowing, headache, inability to understand, mental confusion, or rapid involuntary eye movement.