The Effect Of Selenium On Fish On Freshwater Systems : A Scientific Literature Review

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Effect of Selenium on Fish in Freshwater Systems: A Scientific Literature Review

The purpose the following scientific literature review was to examine the published research on the effect of the presence and effect of Selenium (Se) on fish in the freshwater systems United States and focused specifically of Kentucky and surrounding states. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has published peer reviewed compilations of research in support of national water quality criterion of Selenium in surface waters. These criteria are related to streams that are habitat to aquatic biota designated Clean Water Act (CWA) 305b designated use of warm water aquatic habitat. Based on the EPA reference research the water quality criterion for
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There is a limited about of recent scholarly articles with historical references. The following literature reviews includes important documents both scholarly and governmental. Effort was made to include applicable scientific journal articles.
The element and heavy metal selenium has many forms in including Se6+, Se4+, Se0, Se-. It is an essential element for biological function and have biological effects both with deficiency and surplus (Burger and Gochfeld, 2012). The element is exposed and present in both natural and anthropogenic processes. The element is found in the water column, groundwater and surface water systems and in fresh and marine water (Burger and Gochfeld, 2012). According to the technical factsheet of national primary drinking water regulations, selenium is “an essential nutrient at low levels (EPA, 2010).” In humans long-term exposure to selenium at levels of 0.5mg/l can result in hair and fingernail loss, damage to kidney, liver, nervous and circulatory systems. The element selenium is in demand for its various: electronic and photocopier components, glass manufacturing, and chemical and pigments. There are no true deposits of selenium on earth than can be mined or recovered. The element often is present in sulfide ores of heavy metals. Volcanic soils have large amounts of selenium. “Selenium is most strongly enriched element in coal, being present as an organoselenium
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