The Effects Of A Healthy Low Calorie Restricted Diet And Aerobic Exercise On Obesity

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The Effects of a Healthy Low Calorie Restricted Diet and Aerobic Exercise on Obesity By Robert Jay Yang Masters in Physiology Candidate Literature Research Course (PBIO 907-11), Summer 2014 Capstone Reader: Dr. Patrick Forcelli Introduction The prevalence of obesity continues to increase and remains elevated over the past several decades in the United States (12). About 34% adults and 17% children are obese, which totals to about 72 million adults and 12 million children out of the entire U.S. population. Among these, African Americans and Hispanics Americans have the highest rates compared to Asian Americans and non-Hispanics White (12). Obesity is defined as having excessive fat in the body. Although overweight and obesity are…show more content…
Body Mass Index (BMI) is a method of measuring obesity by dividing the height of an individual by his or her weight. Although BMI indirectly measures fat in the body, BMI correlates with the amount of body fat and is a convenient measurement. Athletes in particular have a BMI with an obesity measurement due to lean muscle mass, not fat mass. In adults, a BMI within the range of 18.5 and 24.9 is healthy, between 25 and 29.9 is overweight, and above 30 is obese (10, 12). In contrast, weight of children is determined by calculating age and sex-specific percentile for the BMI; body composition vary by gender and age. BMI below the 85th percentile is healthy, between 85th and 95th percentile is overweight, and above 95th percentile is obese (12). Other methods to determine obesity is by calculating waist-to-hip ratio, measuring skinfold thickness, or using ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. Some treatments to control obesity is by setting goals, committing to lifestyle changes, taking prescriptions, or agreeing to weight loss surgeries. Medicinal and surgical approaches are typically the last options in controlling obesity if lifestyle changes remain ineffective. However, these come with both positive and negative outcomes. In comparison to lifestyle changes, there are only positive outcomes where lifestyle changes focuses on balancing calorie intake and expenditure (10, 12). Calorie intake of about 3,500 calories (kcal) is
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