David is a 10 years-old boy doing his homework at the kitchen table. The homework consisted of mathematical problems, a short reading and answer question, and memorizing the 50 Capitals of the United States. All the assignments for homework were due on Friday morning, so he quickly finished his homework so he could get to bed. Around 10:00 pm, David’s father came home from work, checked his son’s homework and saw many errors. He immediately went up to David’s bedroom and kicked open the door. Yelling at David, “You see this homework, you have many mistakes in math, your answers to your short readings are not correct and you did get all the 50 capitals right!!, you are worthless, stupid, and a big mistake of being born.” David’s father then proceeded to hit him with a wire hanger in both legs, and arms, the face and on his buttocks. David’s dad yelled again “Tomorrow morning when you get up, you will not eat breakfast and go to school hungry!!” David cried the rest of the night, hurting in pain, then eventually falling asleep.
Pediatric abusive head trauma, also known as shaken baby syndrome, is a devastating form of abuse. It occurs when a young child is violently shaken. The repeated shaking back and forth motion causes the child’s brain to bounce within the skull, resulting in bruising and swelling. This intentionally inflicted injury causes trauma to the head and neck region, including cranial, cerebral, and spinal injuries. It occurs in infants and small children because the muscles of the neck region aren’t strong enough to go against the shaking force that occurs. Some make a complete recovery; others are left with debilitating handicaps, and in some cases death occurs. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012), states that among all the forms
According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 3.3 million referrals for alleged maltreatment were made in 2013. Out of the 3.3 million referrals, 899,000 children were officially documented as being maltreated(Child Abuse & Neglect 2015). Child abuse is the mistreatment of a child. Child abuse is recognized in several forms; physical, emotional, sexual and neglect. Children who experience any form of abuse will tend to withdraw themselves from their peers and sometimes from other family members who are not aware of what is taking place. Child abuse occurs not just in the homes of these children, but can also occur in schools, churches and after school programs. Anywhere a child is present there is a chance that abuse can
Child abuse in American today is amongst the most saddened topics of mankind. Many children are subjected to neglect and abuse on a daily basis. The sex and age of child makes no difference when it comes to child abuse.. Boys and girls are equally likely to suffer maltreatment. The problem is how often child abuse goes unreported. Millions of children across the world are abused in some way, whether it is verbal, emotional, physical or sexual. Child abuse has been happening all over the world to young children, however many children keep this a secret because of fear of what could happen. Child Abuse consists of any act of commission or omission that endangers or impairs a child’s physical or emotional health and development. It can be
Within the United States, child maltreatment is becoming more and more commonly reported as there is over 3 million reports each year. Due to the constant increase of child maltreatment reports, society has become more aware of the issue, which has led to awareness campaigns. (Payne, 87). Even with societies’ knowledge of such abuse there are still serval child maltreatment cases that are not reported. The children that are victims of maltreatment pertains any sort of harm to the child whether it is by injury, neglect, physical, emotional, or even sexual abuse by someone who holds a major role in the child’s life, a parent or guardian figure (“What is Child Abuse”).
In 1962, C. Henry Kempe published an article discussing symptoms of shaken baby syndrome it was more towards the symptoms from abuse and not from accidents. Some of the physical indicators he discussed were poor skin hygiene, malnutrition and fractures. Depending on the age of the child and if the abuse has been ongoing there could be older fractures. John Caffey, a pediatric radiologist, following up on Kempe’s work in 1972 and 1974, suggested that babies could be seriously injured without outward signs of trauma to the body. “He described a constellation of clinical findings that were used to coin the term ‘whiplash shaken baby syndrome.’ Caffey’s observations…noted common injuries including retinal hemorrhages, subdural and/or subarachnoid hemorrhages, and minimal or absent signs of external cranial trauma.” More recently, the syndrome has been described as abusive head trauma resulting from shaking the baby, with or without impact (Isser & Schwartz, 2006). Shaken baby syndrome is a serious brain injury to a child. When a child is shaken repeatedly it causes tears in the brain tissue, blood vessels, and nerves. The child’s brain collides against the skull and it can cause bleeding and swelling in the brain. Up to the age of five years old a child can be a victim of shaken baby syndrome. It is most common in children who are between three and eight months old but the highest rates are in infants who are between six to eight weeks
Child Maltreatment continues to be a pressing issue throughout the United States. Over the years many children are victims of some type of maltreatment which in some cases can lead to fatalities. Maltreatment can have a negative impact on children and can leave numerous physical and psychological scars affecting the child’s adjustment not only at the time of abuse, but also into their young
Child abuse can take the form of physical cruelty, neglect, or emotional or sexual abuse (1). Abuse- related craniocerebral trauma or non-accidental head in- jury (NAHI) accounts for only a small proportion of all child abuse, but is conspicuously over-represented in the first year of life (2). NAHI is the most frequent non- natural cause of death in infancy (3), and the most com- mon cause of death overall between the ages of 6 and 12 months (4). The clinical spectrum ranges from trivial bruising to severe trauma with fatal outcome. The shak- en baby syndrome (SBS) is a common form of NAHI in which the victim is held by the torso or the extremities and violently shaken, causing abrupt uncontrolled head movements with a marked rotatory component.
(National Center on Baby Shaken Syndrome) Head Trauma is the most frequent cause of permanent damage or death among abused infants and children (Showers, 1992). Fifteen percent of children's deaths are due to bettering or shaking and an additional 15 percent are possible cases of shaking. Fewer than 10 to 15 percent of shaken babies are believed to recover completely (Palmer).
“The systematic study of child abuse in the United States began in 1962 with an article called “The Battled Child Syndrome”, the article examined evidence of repeated bone fractures in children. ”(Child abuse) The article led to the range of studies in the United States. Hundreds of thousands of children in the United States alone are victims of child abuse including sexual, physical, and emotional harm. There are many children that get abused today.
Abusive head trauma is the leading cause of physical child abuse in the United States. Shaken baby syndrome is one of them, it is when you violently shake a baby causing brain damage, internal bleeding, retardation, blindness, and very serious cases death, the five of the actually shaken is 10 times if a child was to trip or fell down. There are serious long-term consequences for babies that are severely shaken. Some symptoms including difficulty staying aware, seizures, abnormal breathing, poor eating, bruises, and lastly vomiting. As the infant does not have fully developed neck muscles and the brain tissue is still very delicate their sizes doubles the actual injury. There are some ways to prevent this syndrome by trying to calm your crying
Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS) approximately kills 306 babies each year in the United States, and causes severe brain injuries to 1000-3000 infants. The term “Shaken Baby Syndrome” (SBS) is often used by doctors and public to describe Abusive Head Trauma (AHT). Shaken Baby Syndrome was coined at the 1970s, yet it is no longer used at many children’s specialized hospitals such as Sydney children’s hospital. Pediatricians more commonly use terms like Abusive head trauma (AHT) or inflicted traumatic brain injury. Although that Shaken Baby syndrome is highly dangerous and common, many people have not heard of it. Therefore, healthcare professionals must warn parents and caregivers about Shaken Baby Syndrome through showing the
This literature Review is based on studies done only on the United States from 2002 to 2015. This review focuses on children under the age of 18, and reviews consequences of what can happen when they reach the adulthood.
Child abuse in the United States is a growing epidemic. Every year the number of reported cases, and missing children go up. This is caused mostly by lack of education about the different types of child abuse, and the signs that go along with it. Communities need to provide more resources to better educate the public about the types of abuse, and the signs that go along with it. Child abuse and neglect can be lessened by more resources, more education and to reach out to others.
Child Abuse. How does one decide what constitutes abuse? Is there a thin line between abuse and discipline? We often hear the horrific stories of child abuse in our communities, but are we as a society so used to hearing these stories that we have become desensitized to them?