The Effects Of Citalopram On Depressive Illness, Panic Disorder And Mood Disorders

1043 WordsNov 16, 20145 Pages
Overview Citalopram is a prescription only, anti-depressant drug used to treat depressive illness, panic disorder and mood disorders (Hammen, 1997). Like most anti-depressants, Citalopram is a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI). This means it prevents the neurotransmitter Serotonin from being reabsorbed by neurones and hence increasing its concentration in the brain (Fernández-Pastor & Ortega & Meana, 2013). Serotonin is responsible for maintaining mood balance and a feeling of happiness, and so increasing its levels can successfully relieve the symptoms of depression. Chemical Structure Citalopram is a chiral molecule and exists as two enantiomers; S-citalopram and R-citalopram. (Hall, 2001) They are optical isomers with…show more content…
The chemical formula is C20H21FN2O and its full IUPAC name is 1-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-carbonitrile (Hall, 2001). Pharmacodynamics Serotonin, (or 5-hydroxytryptamine) is a neurotransmitter released by neurones in the brain. It is a chemical responsible for good mood and well-being. Therefore one of the possible causes of depression is a chemical imbalance of Serotonin levels in the brain and consequently, ineffective neuronal transmission at the synaptic cleft. (Lovatt, 2010) This has negative implications on mood, sleep and appetite. The neurotransmitter is released from vesicles from a pre-synaptic neurone and diffuses across the synapse, which is a gap between two neurones, and travels to the post synaptic neurone. Serotonin binds to reuptake channels on the presynaptic neurone, from which it was released, and is transported back so that it can be stored and reused. Citalopram selectively binds to these reuptake channels on the surface of neurones. This effectively blocks the reuptake channels so serotonin cannot be removed from the synaptic cleft (Beckham & Leber, 1995). Over time, this increases the concentration of serotonin in the synapse which gives serotonin more time to interact with the serotonin receptors in the brain. This enhances the effect on the post synaptic neurone (Stone, 2010). Pharmacokinetics Citalopram is rapidly absorbed from the Gastro Intestinal tract and
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