disorder (PDD). In specific, he described symptoms that allow Criterion A, which requires the presence of a depressed mood for at least two years (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013), to be met. He reported that he is mildly depressed. Such depression, as described, started approximately five years ago when he “ran out of steam.” Since then, he has experienced various associated symptoms, such as irritability, hypersomnia, and weight gain, which allow Criterion B (i.e., the presence of two or
more susceptible to drug abuse, aggressive behavior, and binge drinking later on in life (Swendsen et al., 2010). Additionally, BPD used to always be considered the sole mental illness an individual had but recently it has been shown that BPD is comorbid with other diseases,
many sufferers can lead a reasonably normal life. The estimated annual incidence is 0.2 to 0.4 by 1000. The frequency of schizophrenia is similar in both sexes but in women tends to occur later and present a more benign course, probably due to the effect of estrogen on D2 receptors. Substantial changes are recorded in the prevalence and incidence of the disease from one country to another and between different cultures, but the differences are reduced if strict diagnostic criteria are applied.
ARTICLE IN PRESS Behaviour Research and Therapy 45 (2007) 687–698 www.elsevier.com/locate/brat Group cohesion in cognitive-behavioral group therapy for social phobia Marlene Taube-Schiffa, Michael K. Suvakb, Martin M. Antonyc,d,e,Ã, Peter J. Bielinge,f, Randi E. McCabed,e a Psychosocial Oncology and Palliative Care Department, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada b Department of Psychology, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA c Department of Psychology, Ryerson University, 350
Abstract Parasomnias are partial arousal states that disrupt sleep. Different phenomena that are closely related make up this spectrum of behavior, described as complex behaviors or physiological events that manifest when an individual becomes stuck in the transition period of the sleep cycle. Studies on partial arousal states have been more in depth within the last half century. In regards to sleep terror disorder, many effected individuals only require assurance of their safety and accurate facts