disorder (PDD). In specific, he described symptoms that allow Criterion A, which requires the presence of a depressed mood for at least two years (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013), to be met. He reported that he is mildly depressed. Such depression, as described, started approximately five years ago when he “ran out of steam.” Since then, he has experienced various associated symptoms, such as irritability, hypersomnia, and weight gain, which allow Criterion B (i.e., the presence of two or
more susceptible to drug abuse, aggressive behavior, and binge drinking later on in life (Swendsen et al., 2010). Additionally, BPD used to always be considered the sole mental illness an individual had but recently it has been shown that BPD is comorbid with other diseases, neurological and physiological, and that other diseases may lead to the eventual development of BPD (Geller et al., 2009). Keywords: early onset bipolar disorder, BPD, risk factors, comorbidity, child mental development, fMRI
many sufferers can lead a reasonably normal life. The estimated annual incidence is 0.2 to 0.4 by 1000. The frequency of schizophrenia is similar in both sexes but in women tends to occur later and present a more benign course, probably due to the effect of estrogen on D2 receptors. Substantial changes are recorded in the prevalence and incidence of the disease from one country to another and between different cultures, but the differences are reduced if strict diagnostic criteria are applied.
beginning and end of treatment. We found that cohesion ratings signiﬁcantly increased over the course of the group and were associated with improvement over time in social anxiety symptoms, as well as improvement on measures of general anxiety, depression, and functional impairment. In conclusion, ﬁndings are consistent with the idea that changes in group cohesion are related to social anxiety symptom reduction and, therefore, speak to the importance of nonspeciﬁc therapeutic factors in treatment
states (Mahowald, Schenk, & Bornemann, 2011), with an occasional coexistence of sleep and wake (Nadorff, 2015). The Third Edition of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 2014) is a manual dedicated solely to disturbances pertaining to sleep and its components. The ICSD-3 portrays parasomnias as sleep terrors, sleepwalking, and confusional arousals (American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 2014). The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders