The Effects Of Diabetes On The Body 's Immune System

1293 WordsNov 21, 20146 Pages
Abstract Diabetes is a disorder that affects millions of people in the United States today. There are two main types of diabetes including type 1, and type 2. Diabetes is caused by the body’s inability to produce insulin from beta cells. Beta cells are cells that can be found in the pancreas and regulate glucose levels. When glucose levels spike, beta cells are sometimes unable to continue producing adequate amounts of glucose and are destroyed in the process. In diabetics, the body’s immune system attacks the beta cells believing that they are foreign matter. When beta cells are destroyed, no insulin can be produced and can result in many symptoms including fatigue. Although this is an increasing problem today due to the increased levels of obesity, scientists have found a possible cure. This possible cure requires the injection of human embryotic stem cells in hopes that the cells can replicate and replenish the destroyed beta cells. Literature Review Beta cells are cells that are found in the islets of Langerhans. The islets of Langerhans are clustered areas in the pancreas containing hormone producing cells. These cells make up about sixty to eighty percent of all cells found in these islets. They regulate blood glucose levels in the body by the processes of producing, storing, and releasing insulin (Cnop, M. et al, 2005). The production of insulin in beta cells is an important process in the body. Insulin is a small protein created in order to correctly fold
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