The Effects Of Exposure On Male Fighting Fish, Betta Splendens
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A) The purpose of this article is to explain an investigation attempting to correlate negative behavioral effects observed in adult male fighting fish, Betta splendens, with exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens. The phytoestrogens the B. splendens were exposed to were genistein, equol, β-sitosterol, and 17 β-estradiol. Behavioral effects of exposure were analyzed by monitoring spontaneous swimming movements, amount of time it took to react to an alleged intruder, amount of aggression toward that alleged intruder, likelihood of building a nest whilst among a female B. splendens and the area of said nest. This study was conducted given there has been no research done on the behavioral biomarkers resulting from waterborne phytoestrogens as an environmental contaminant to aquatic species, even though these animals are the highest probability of experiencing phytoestrogen exposure in their natural habitats. Additionally, when considering phytoestrogens’ ability to cause reproductive and developmental malfunction in fishes, waterborne phytoestrogen’s presence in sewage treatment plants’ liquid waste, runoff from agricultural areas utilizing manure and wood pulp mills ' liquid waste is concerning.
B) Behavioral effects of exposures to short term genistein, equol, β-sitosterol, and 17 β-estradiol on B. splendens were analyzed by observing impulsive actions, latency to react to a suspected invader, amount of aggression toward that invader, likelihood of building a nest while in the