The Effects Of Genetic Mutations On Dna Repair Systems And Mutations

883 Words Dec 5th, 2016 4 Pages
Several decades of cancer research have identified thousands of mutation causing carcinogens, genetic mutations in DNA repair systems and mutations that cause dysregulation in critical signal pathways involved in cell cycle progression, cell growth and programmed cell death. Human cancers cannot be classified as a single disease because they are each unique on the molecular level. Often the same documented cancer type can inflict two patients with similar symptoms, but the required treatment for each patient will be different because the molecular mechanisms causing the symptoms must be treated differently. This is the primary reason why there is no “cure for cancer” because we may have one word to describe all cancers; it is a classification of many diseases. (The question is irrational and misinformed. If cancer were one disease with an underlying fundamental mutation or pathogen that could be isolated, then we would have found the cure by now.) Each type of cancer is inherently unique containing a minimum of 5 to 6 mutations that comprise the genotype, which could result in similar phenotypes. However, they have similar properties for which they are classified, called “hallmarks of cancer”. The “hallmarks of cancer” include persistent signaling for cell proliferation, circumventing growth/tumor suppressors, evading cell death, promoting endless replication, activating angiogenesis, and triggering metastasis and invasive properties (Hanahan and Weinberg 2011). The constant…
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