The Effects Of Heat Stress On The Food And Nutritional Security

1416 WordsDec 16, 20166 Pages
Introduction According to the IPCC reports, an increase of 2-4°C in temperature is predicted globally by the end of the 21st century (IPCC 2007). It is also estimated that tropical and subtropical parts of the world will be the most affected areas by this rise in temperature (Battisti and Naylor 2009; Lobell and Gourdji, 2012). Moreover, due to rise in temperature, a noticeable change in plant phenology and yield was observed across different crop species and also within crop species (Ibanez et al., 2010). Thus, it is an urgent issue to be addressed with regard to heat stress to ensure the food and nutritional security. The rise in temperature beyond a threshold level for a period of time causing irreversible damage to plant growth and development is called heat stress. In general, a transient elevation in temperature, usually 10–15 ◦C above ambient, is considered heat shock or heat stress. The exposure to high temperature or heat stress affects the growth, development and physiological mechanism of the crop. Transitory or constantly high temperatures cause an array of morpho-anatomical (seed germination, fruit maturation etc.) physiological (photosynthesis, respiration, membrane stability etc.) and biochemical changes movement, transport of materials and hormones and primary and secondary metabolites) in most crops, which affect the crop growth and development. (Chen et al., 1982) Consequently, this may lead to a drastic reduction in cost-production ratio of the yield.
Open Document