The Effects Of Heavy Metal Decontamination Of Sluil

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Heavy metal contamination of soils has received considerable attention in the contemporary science. Application of biological processes for decontaminating the contaminated/polluted sites is a challenging task because heavy metals cannot be degraded and hence persist in the soil (Kidd et al., 2009; Lebeau et al., 2008; Maet al., 2011a; Rajkumar et al., 2010). Among heavy metals, Al (aluminium), Zn (zinc), Mn (manganese), Cr (chromium), Cu (copper), Cd (cadmium), Pb (lead) and Hg (mercury) are the common toxic metals (Emamverdian et al., 2015). Cadmium (Cd) enters the soils in various ways, but mainly through anthropogenic sources such as phosphate fertilizers and sewage sludge, and emissions from power stations, metal and cement…show more content…
Rodr´ıguez-Serrano et al. (2009) discussed the cellular response of pea plants to Cd toxicity, focusing mainly on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and its effect on calcium. Hasan et al. (2009) summarized Cd-induced toxic symptoms such as growth retardation and decreases in stomatal movement, enzymatic activities, and protein metabolism in plants. There is a dearth of knowledge on the cellular mechanisms that govern Cd toxicity and plant tolerance. This review aims to identify various sources of Cd contamination and discusses the bioavailability and toxicity of Cd in plants. Phytoremediation Mechanism in Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea) and Its Enhancement Through Agronomic Interventions S. S. Rathore1 • Kapila Shekhawat1 • Anchal Dass1 • B. K. Kandpal2 • V. K. Singh1,)
In order to cleanup the contaminated sites, heavy metals should be extracted and concentrated by an appropriate technique for proper disposal in designated secure landfill sites. The established conventional techniques (e.g., thermal processes, physical separation, electrochemical methods, washing, stabilization/solidification and burial) for clean-up of metal contaminated soils are generally too expensive and often harmful to soil microbial diversity (Dermont et al., 2008; Ma et al., 1993; McGrath et al., 1995; Mulligan et al., 2001; Pulford and Watson, 2003). Plant mediated decontamination/detoxification processes are commonly referred to as
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