Most people are surprised to learn that their bodies are contaminated with heavy metals. This is a little-known problem that has grown into a widespread issue. There are many different ways your body becomes contaminated with heavy metals, such as through the type of cookware you use, the tap water you drink and the fillings you have in your teeth. Fortunately, there are natural ways to cleanse your body of these harmful toxins, such as with chlorella. This is an algae found in nature and is oftentimes used in integrative medicine by naturopathic doctors in Arizona.
Another common remediation technique is stabilization or solidification which aims to alter the contaminants into a less soluble or mobile form (Wuana and Okieimen, 2011; Mulligan, Yong, and Gibbs, 2001; United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1991). In both methods water and a site-specific chemical solution is mixed into the soil to either alter its physical - make it less soluble - or chemical - reduce mobility - properties to make it less likely that the contaminants will move into other locations or be inhaled (Wuana and Okieimen, 2011; Mulligan, Yong, and Gibbs, 2001). Chemical treatment can also fall under the umbrella term of stabilization. Chemical treatment is add chemical solutions to the soil to detoxify the soil and can be used as a pre-treatment for other techniques such as solidification (Wuana and Okieimen, 2011; Mulligan, Yong, and Gibbs, 2001). These techniques are typically preferred due to lower costs but other physical elements of the soil, such as boulders, can make mixing the soil difficult and the process can volatilize and release volatile compounds (Mulligan, Yong, and Gibbs, 2001; United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1991). Mobility of contaminants can also be reduced by using the technique of vitrification through the process of heating up the soil (Wuana and Okieimen, 2011; United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1991). This method results
During rain events, a combination of contaminants from roadways, parking lots, manufacturing facilities and industrial sites enter storm drains . This runoff is a major contributor to oil contamination in public water domains and if left untreated, it leads to greater pollution of our oceans, lakes, and rivers. Runoff can also contain heavy metals, such as potassium (K + ) , zinc (Zn 2+ ), lead (Pb 2+ ), copper (Cu 2+ ), and chromium (Cr 3+ ), all of which in large quantities are extremely toxic to biological environments . The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the Clean Water Act (CWA) 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 122 indicates that facilities are required to obtain National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Systems
In order to develop the local soil criteria for identifying soils that would result in Pb concentrations in agricultural produce over food quality standard, it is crucial to establish the links between Pb contamination in soils and foods (Zhang et al., 2018a; Zhang et al., 2018b). Numerous studies have investigated the Pb as well as other trace metals soil-plant relationships. For Pb, higher levels in foods such as vegetables often found where soil levels were relatively higher (Samsøe-Petersen et al., 2002; Zhang et al., 2018b). Bioconcentration factors (BCFs), with a linear uptake assumption were often used to link the soil-plant contamination levels. Despite of some successful attempts (Samsøe-Petersen et al., 2002), results overall were not consistent especially for Pb (Ding et al., 2016; Samsøe-Petersen et al., 2002; Zhang et al., 2018b).
Chemical elements can cause harmful effects on human health due to the use of plants that are grown in contaminated soil. Through bioaccumulation, over plants that absorb an element from the soil, elements enter into the food chain and shall be deposited in the human body. Root system in plants plays an important role in the distribution of elements from the soil through the plant. Elevated pH values can affect the lack of accessible forms of specific nutritious elements. The value of pH has a decisive influence on the dynamics of all the elements in the soil, especially micro elements and heavy metals. In the acidic environment the solubility of metals increases, they cross to the solution of the soil from which the plant adopted them, which can lead to greater adoption of these elements by plants. The increase in soil acidity reduces the amount of plant available phosphorus, which by binding to iron and aluminum becomes difficult soluble phosphates (Resulović, Čustović 2002) Also, there is a more intensive adoption of manganese and its toxic effects on
Beside the natural activities, almost all human activities also have potential contribution to Arsenic contamination in the environment as side effects occurs in many parts of the world and is a global problem. In many areas As level has crossed the safe threshold level. Large-scale groundwater pollution by geogenic arsenic (As) in West-Bengal and Bangladesh has recently promoted this element into an environmental pollutant of prime concern. Epidemiological studies have documented various adverse effects on the human population. Arsenic contaminated soils, sediments, and sludge are the major sources of arsenic contamination of the food chain, surface water, groundwater, and drinking water (WT Frankenberger & Arshad, 2002). Other potential sources of arsenic contamination are the chemicals used extensively in agriculture as pesticides, insecticides, defoliants, wood preservatives, and soil sterilants (AZCUE & NRIAGU, 1994). Currently available techniques for the remediation of As contaminated soil are very expensive and time-consuming, often hazardous to workers, and capable of producing secondary wastes (LOMBI, ZHAO, DUNHAM, & MCGRATH, 2000). Phytoextraction, the use of green plants to clean up contaminated soil, has attracted attention as an environmentally- friendly, low-input remediation technique. It uses plants that extract heavy metals from the soil and accumulate it in the harvestable, above ground biomass.
Environmental pollutants are becoming increasingly present throughout the world as industrial progress has expanded in countries like China. Among these environmental pollutants, Cadmium has been characterized as the most dangerous heavy metal ion because of its resiliency and numerous negative health effects (Kermani et. Al., 2010). Growing dependence on chemical fertilizer, wastewater irrigation, and uncontrolled discharge of industrial waste from activities, such as mining and smelting, has led to large amounts of Cadmium in soil (Nazar et. Al., 2012).
Soil pollution is defined as the contamination of soil by toxic (man-made) substances such as pesticides, trash, chemicals and the improper disposal of wastes. The contamination of soil by pollution is mostly known in North America, Asia and Europe, with causes including oil spills, industrial wastes, acid rain, and road debris. The largest current source of soil pollution is agricultural fertilizers and runoff. The next largest source of soil pollution is landfills filled with byproducts and toxins. This soil pollution can have negative effects not only on people, but also the plant organisms in this soil. The purpose of this paper is to explore the causes of soil pollution in local areas as well as the effect of soil pollution on plants in that polluted soil.
Presently, most cars run on gasoline and thus gas stations are vital to our everyday life. In urban cities, gas stations are found in just about every other corner. It has already been documented that burning gasoline produces toxic fumes that contributes to air pollution, global warming, and many health concerns. Soil surrounding a gas station can also be contaminated with gasoline and generate soil pollution. In comparison with air, soil is more complex in composition and function. It functions as a sink for pollutants, as a filter which delays the passage of chemicals to groundwater, and as a bioreactor for organic life. Just as gas is a source of fuel for cars, soil is an essential component of the earth’s ecosystem. It serves as a home to many microbes and provides the necessary nutrients to plants that dwell in it. The pondus hyrdogenii (pH) indicates a solution’s acidity and alkalinity. A pH value of 7 is considered neutral. A solution with a pH between 0 to 7 is acid and one between 7 to 14 is alkaline. Most biological organisms including plants have a very narrow range of pH values in which environmental substrates can survive. Plants prefer acidic substances. This leads to the following questions: Are gas stations in El Paso, Texas a contributing factor to soil contamination?
Soil pollution involving the accumulation of excess heavy metals is toxic to humans and other mammalian life.1 The effect on animals can ac-cumulate in the food chains and instigate public health concerns in the future. Normally, the exposure due to food chain transfer is chronic, however, there are rare acute cases where direct ingestion of such pollutants is poisonous.2 Given the importance of the situation, the determination of toxic heavy metals in the environment is essential.
If we compare the root to shoot translocation of heavy metals in hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator then it is found that non-hyperaccumulator retain the heavy metals in root cells taken from the contaminated sites or sludges and then detoxifying them by chelation in the cytoplasm and then storing them into vacuoles, while in hyperaccumulaors there are rapid and effective translocation of heavy metals takes place. It is found that large quantity of organic molecules in small quantity is present in hyperaccumulator roots that can operate as metal binding ligands. Free amino acids play an important role in heavy metals hyperaccumulation in plants. Such amino acids are histidine and nicotinamine, which form stable complexes with bivalent cations (Callahan 2008). The P1B-type ATPases, a class of proteins, also named HMAs (Heavy Metals Transporting ATPases), are of
Ground water is present below the surface in porous rocks and is susceptible to contamination by natural and especially human related activities. Large amounts of chemicals like soap and detergents, fertilizers and pesticides, pharmaceutical by-products are discharged in to fresh water aquifers every day. These contaminants leach in to the soil and dissolve in ground water. Different contaminants have different rates of solubility and degradation once they reach the underground water table either by simple flow or by the downward movement of rain water. The ground water may become contaminated with both organic and inorganic substances especially heavy metals like Cadmium, Chromium and Nickel, etc. (Christensen et al, 2001). Pharmaceutical wastes can cause cancer in human cells. (Krifa et al. 2013). Many pharmaceutically active chemicals reach
There is a vast amount of literature which indicates that the mineral nutrition has an important role in the toxicity of metals (Pond and Walker, 1972, 1975; Larson and Piscator, 1971; Petering et al., 1971, 1974; 1977; Hamilton and Valberg, 1974; Doyle and Pfander, 1975; Hastings et al., 1976; Waldron and Stofen, 1974). It is true, especially to those micronutrients which are essential such as zinc, copper, iron with respect to toxicity of certain metals like cadmium, arsenic, lead etc. It is assumed that the dietary intake of metals in excessive such as copper, iron and zinc will be protective against the toxic effects of the heavy metals like lead. The deficiency of calcium and other essential elements result in the enhanced toxicity of lead and cadmium [ref]. There had been difficulty in evaluating the role of essential nutrients like zinc, iron, copper etc on the toxicity of heavy metals, perhaps due to differences in the animal models choosen, the route of administration and other metabolic and physiological differences which leads to variable results between studies.
Mahdavi et al. (2012) reported that the removal of Ni, Cu, As, Sr, Mo and Ba by Parachlorella kessleri, from Syncrude tailings pond water was significantly enhanced by high concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus, whereas the high nutrient concentrations adversely affected the removal of Co, Ni, As, Sr and Mo in samples of Albian tailings pond water. In order to make it more suitable for biosorption process, algae waste obtained after oil extraction, have been activated by alkaline treatment and used for cadmium(II) removal in batch and column systems. For batch systems, the effect of initial cadmium(II) concentration and contact time was studied in optimal experimental conditions (pH of 5.0, 8 g biomass L-1). Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second order kinetics model describe the experimental data well. For column studies, the alkaline treated algae waste biomass was mixed with an industrial ion exchanger resin (Purolite A-100) in order to prevent the clogging of column. Bohart-Adams, Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models were used to fit breakthrough curves obtained under varying conditions. Five biosorption/desorption cycles have yielded between 98.83 and 92.39% biosorbent regeneration. The biosorbent could efficient remove cadmium (II) from industrial wastewater, and obtained effluent has
Phytoremediation is the process by which plants and trees are used to remove or stabilize hazardous pollutants that exist in soil, sediments, surface water or groundwater. The EPA (environmental protection agency) estimates that more than 30,000 sites in the U.S. are in need of environmental treatment, and a great number of these sites are contaminated with highly toxic metals. Abandoned or under-used commercial and industrial facilities, termed as “brownfields,” are a major contributor to this environment concern. “Brownfields” pose significant health risks to nearby residential populations and threaten the plant and animal life close to them. Phytoremediation provides a very