The Effects Of Separation And Loss On Children 's Development

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Separation and Loss:
According to Ringel and Brandell (2012), Bowlby’s attachment theory was impacted by Spitz’s observation of abundant infants, Darwin’s evolutionary theory, and Harlow’s experiment with baby monkeys that were separated from their mothers (pp. 77-78). Bowlby’s conclusion is that infants’ basic survival needs are not just food and shelter but also love and nurturing (p. 78). Ringel and Brandell (2012), mention that from his work with children in orphanages and hospitals, Bowlby realized the influence of separation and loss on children’s development and the traumatic experiences is the base of attachment theory (p. 78). Ringel and Brandell (2012), state that according to Bowlby, children will respond to separation in three different phases: protest, despair, and detachment (p. 78). In addition Bowlby work involved the process of grief and mourning of children. Ringel and Brandell (2012) emphasize that Bowlby recognized that loss and grief effect children deeply and could be unresolved for years (p. 78). Continuation to Bowlby’s work was the work of Ainsworth. Ainsworth developed the Strange Situation experiment. According to Ringel and Brandell (2012) the Strange Situation resulted in the recognition of three attachment styles in children (p. 78): secure, avoidantly attached, and anxious-ambivalent (p. 79). Secure children demonstrate distress with the departure of their primary caregiver but easily soothed when returned. Avoidantly attached children

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