The Effects Of Sleep And Variables On Sleep

1457 WordsNov 6, 20146 Pages
This paper will cover the scientific study of sleep and variables which impact sleep by examining the five different stages of sleep, evaluating dreams and nightmares, assessing the causes and effects of sleep disorders and the various types of treatments, in addition to the effects of food and drugs on sleep. There are five stages of sleep, numbered one through four and REM (Rapid-Eye-Movement) sleep. Upon falling asleep, the brain and body goes through each stage to comprise sleep cycle which approximately has a duration of 90 minutes. Stage One commences when the body and brain begin to relax. During this stage, heart beat slows down, breathing becomes regular, and blood pressure tends to decrease (Huffman. K, 2011, p.174). In addition, brain activity starts to shift, moving from beta waves to the slower alpha waves. Despite being deeply relaxed in this stage, it is still very easy to be awakened (Huffman. K, 2011, p.174). Following Stage 1, the mind and body move to Stage Two. In this stage the body becomes more relaxed so it is less aware of its surroundings (Huffman. K, 2011, p.174). Short burst of rapid brain waves known as sleep spindles, “can be visually observed against the background of an electroencephalogram (EEG)” (Fogel, S. M., Nader, R., Cote, K. A., & Smith, C. T. (2007). Sleep spindles and learning potential. Behavioral Neuroscience, 121(1), 1-10). Following Stage Two, Stages Three and Four take place. These stages are much deeper levels of sleep because
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