The Effects Of Smoking On The Decline Of Smoking Rates

1072 Words Oct 24th, 2014 5 Pages
Introduction
Despite the fact that Australia has made significant advances in the decline of smoking rates within the population, with rates falling dramatically since the 1960s to approximately 14% of the population classed as smokers, smoking continues to be a leading cause of preventable illness and deaths in Australia. Worryingly, smoking is attributed to more hospital admissions and deaths than alcohol and illicit drug consumption combined. Unfortunately, smoking claims a staggering 15,500 Australians every year. Internationally, the WHO states that 5.4 million people died as a result of smoking in 2008; a figure that is set to rise to 8 million per year by 2030.

Smoking is a behavioural risk factor that has been shown to greatly
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Primary prevention endeavours to promote the idea of healthy living and the reduction of risk factors in order to facilitate this. Smoking cessation programs and anti smoking education is an example of primary prevention in action. Considering that smoking is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, it can be concluded that the primary prevention of smoking would aid in the reduction or elimination of risk associated with tobacco consumption. It should also be noted that premature cardiovascular disease is highly preventable therefore primary prevention is highly desirable.

Cardiovascular risk factors can be placed into two groups. There are non-modifiable risk factors such as age, gender, and family history. These factors are considered to be non-modifiable as there is nothing that can be done to change them. The second group consists of modifiable risk factors which can be further divided into biomedical, behavioural, and psychosocial risk factors. Biomedical risk factors include: hypertension, dislipidaemia, being overweight or obese, diabetes, and renal disease. Behavioural risk factors include: smoking, sedentary lifestyle, poor nutrition, and excessive alcohol consumption. And finally, psychosocial risk factors include: depression, anxiety, social isolation, and stress.

Smoking and Cardiovascular Disease
In 2007, 46,623*update this Australians died as a result of cardiovascular disease, which accounted for a little over a third of all

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