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Chapter 2

Review of Related Literature

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of using math cooperative learning groups on a second grade class at Cypress Cove Elementary School during the academic year of 2016-2017. This chapter focuses on conceptual understanding and the effectiveness of cooperative learning groups in math as well as the influence of group processing on achievement.

Making Connections in Math Cognitive development occurs when students use their current knowledge of a subject’s concepts and procedures to learn new material. Math is no different. Students use what they already know as a foundation for learning new math skills. Teachers who understand this aspect of cognitive development and know how to build on what their students already have learned are effective educators (Sidney & Alibali, 2015).

In a study of fifth and sixth graders being taught division by fractions, Sidney et al. (2015), found that students drew on their past knowledge to understand new problems. Students used their prior knowledge to activate the transfer of the new information.

The Effectiveness of Cooperative Learning

Using differentiated instruction helps build existing knowledge and activates prior knowledge. Once students have gained a deeper level of understanding, using cooperative learning groups is beneficial because it enhances academic achievement, student attitudes, and student retention (Hsiung, 2012). Cooperative learning also provides a natural

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## Hrm/531 Week 2 Assignment

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Students had previously covered the topic of developing fluency in multiplication by 2-digit numbers. After that topic students moved on to cover number sense, dividing by 1-digit divisors using mental math to prepare them for the following topic of my learning segment. The topic of my learning segment consists of developing fluency, dividing by 1-digit divisors. I designed my lesson as a three-day unit focusing on long division by modeling division with place-value blocks, dividing 2-digit by 1-digit numbers, and dividing 3-digit by 1-digit numbers. Students were introduced to division prior to my learning segment but the struggled to understand and comprehend division because students were only introduced to the division algorithm and were not provided with a mnemonic to help them recall the steps. Students also weren’t introduced to division with manipulatives or drawings. Therefore, I

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## Physics Group Worksheet

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It helps students to share their knowledge with each other for a better understanding of a specific concept. One of the important principles that the cooperative learning theory proposes is heterogeneous grouping, which means that the students within the group vary in their gender, skills, class social, religion and age (Jacobs 4). Another important principle is maximum peer interactions that occur when specifying the number of students working together (Jacobs 4). Collaborative skills is an additional principle that is proposed by this theory, which means that students who work with each other are capable of explaining and giving reasons (Jacobs 4). Also, one of the essential principles is individual accountability, which ensures that every one is and working trying to share their knowledge (Jacobs 5). This theory is applied to the physics worksheet because it is a model for enhancing the cooperative learning

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## Plan For Intervention : Social Constructivist Theory

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Secondly, the intervention goal is to improve students’ comfortability and motivation to work together to co-create knowledge. To promote group work and collaboration, cooperative learning will be used so students can work together to make sense of new information and solve problems. The first step is to ensure that the students understand and believe that the classroom is a safe and a nonjudgmental environment which will be accomplished by having students at the beginning of the schoolyear introduce themselves, provide their interests, and state what they would like to learn from the class. The teacher will establish pre-assigned, diverse, semester-length, groups for students to complete group work. Once students are acquainted with each other, they will engage in team-building exercises pertinent to a particular American history topic being learned to help develop rapport (e.g., each group member teaches each other something new about the topic). Overall, these steps will create a cooperative learning environment that will initiate motivation and comfortability.

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## Empirical Article Review Essay

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The study presented compares the effects of structured and unstructured cooperative learning groups on the behavior, discourse and learning of junior high school students. The study was conducted using actual observation, videotaped observation, and a science probe questionnaire.One hundred and sixty-four ninth grade students worked in cooperative learning groups during a science-based lesson that employed cooperative learning techniques. The activity required students to apply the scientific principle of classification of living things to a non-science activity. The groups were composed of three to four mixed-gender, mixed-ability students.Behavioral, Verbal Interaction, and Cognitive Language Strategy data were

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## Collaborative Learning In Middle Schools

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Educators and researchers have never stopped the examination of the importance and relevance of collaborative learning that are encouraged by middle schools. When compared with studying alone, I personally believe that it is far more beneficial to students when working in groups for the following reasons.

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## Creating Equal Groups Of The Classroom Essay

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To introduce the concept of division, I will have the students take out their notebooks and title their pages “division- fact families.” I will ask the students to tell me what they think that division means, and after some discussion, I will ask them to write that division is used to share equally or create equal groups. I will ask the students to give me some examples of when they needed to create equal groups of something. I will provide an example of Halloween candy bags, and making sure that each bag has the same amount in order to be fair. I will choose a few students to share. Next twelve students will be asked to come to the front of the room. They will be asked to physically create three equal groups. The rest of the class will be asked “how groups do we have?” (3) and “how many students are in each group?” (4). Then I will write the multiplication fact 3 x 4 = 12. The students will be asked to make one group again, then to physically create four equal groups. Once they do this, I will ask the same two questions to the class, “how many groups do we have?” (4) and “how many students are in each group?” (3). Then I will write the multiplication fact 4 x 3 = 12 on the board below the other fact. Those students will sit down, and new students will come to the front of the room. I will ask them to stand in one group, then form three groups. I will write 12÷3=4 on the board. Then I will ask them to form one group again, then to make 4 equal groups, and I will write 12÷4=3

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## Cooperative Learning Reflection

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Content-wise our group did a strong job focusing on distinguishing the differences in two different classroom approaches, such as direct learning versus cooperative learning. Through multiple research studies we were able to express to the class the benefits students receive when actively engaged in a cooperative learning environment. We used the textbook definition for cooperative learning and an in-class presentation to define direct learning, which helped assist the class in understanding the differences, especially because

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## Cooperative Learning : A Successful Instructional Strategy

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Cooperative learning is more than just letting students sit next to each other and complete an assignment together. If implemented the wrong way cooperative learning can become ineffective for the students, therefor stunting their ability to grow as learners. A cooperative learning environment will exist if groups are structured in a way that group member’s co-ordinate activities to facilitate one another’s learning (Van Dat, 2013). In order to achieve this kind of environment there are five elements that must be present in a cooperative learning classroom: positive interdependence, face-to-face interaction, individual accountability, interpersonal & social skills, and group processing. Let’s look further into these give elements to have a better understanding of cooperative learning. In order for cooperative learning to be successful students need to be able to reflect on what they learned as a group to ensure all members have an

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## Effective Educators Alternate Instructional Strategies Essay

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Although socialization occurs in everyday life, students must learn group participation skills. Therefore, teachers need to provide their students with opportunities to develop proficient communication skills through student-centered instruction; a variety of strategies that improve collaboration, develop partnerships, and require teamwork. An effective student-centered strategy that is culturally sensitive and promotes the success of all students is the cooperative learning group. The teacher places the students in groups with heterogeneous identities in consideration of their learning styles, gender, language proficiency, or other defining characteristics. Group members receive a specific role in

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## My Personal Philosophy of Education Essay examples

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Cooperative learning will be a method I use in my classroom. I believe that in a cooperative learning group a student can learn socialization skills and how to work with others. This goes along with the pragmatic/progressive philosophy that children learn by doing. The progressivism teaching style also includes the incorporation of problem-solving and critical thinking techniques. I want my students to learn to think for themselves and be able to function in society. At the same time, I will be a fellow learner myself and

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## Thinking, Fractions And Decimals Are Extremely Important Areas Of Mathematics Children

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Multiplicative thinking, fractions and decimals are extremely important areas of mathematics children are required to develop. The concepts within these three areas are related and it is critical for educators to support these relationships in the classroom. Multiplicative thinking involves recall of basic facts, the relationship between multiplication and division and underpins the development of fractions. Comprehension of fractions includes the division of objects, fractions as numbers, the multiple ways equal fractions can be represented, as well as being represented as decimals. Place value is a very important underpinning concept of decimals. Place value aids the ability to read, write and work with decimals. There are a number of difficulties children can come across when developing these concepts and relationships. With a vast mathematical content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge educators can provide effective instruction to help children over come their difficulties. Developing a deep understanding of multiplicative thinking, fractions and decimals will assist children in later mathematics.

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## How Can Make Their Own Reflections Every Time They Implement A Mathematical Task As A Framework?

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The main idea of this article is to teach teachers how make their own reflections every time they implement a mathematical task as a framework. According to the article, it is very important to reflect teaching individually and with colleagues. Stein and Smith explain that making reflections might be a difficult task to do since teachers do not know where to focus on. They also mention how their experiences with middle school teachers in the QUASAR (Quantitative Understanding: Amplifying Student Achievement and Reasoning) project have helped them to see that by focusing on mathematical tasks and their phases of classroom use can assist teachers when making reflections. Another important point that they talk about in this article is the way they explain how important is to focus on mathematical tasks. They explain two ways on how to present a task, in which teachers could either implement lower-level demands or higher-level demands. Lower- level demands consist of letting students memorize procedures without making connections. On the other hand, they describe higher-level demands as giving the students the opportunity to think more in depth, while at the same time making connections. For instance, in the article they show us a picture, where memorization becomes a way to learn that 1/2= 0.50=50% and no connections at all. Procedures with connections, in this case, higher- level demands, are more complex examples. For example, “using a 10 × 10 grid, identify the decimal

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It is my responsibility as a teacher to differentiate instruction and find a way to meet the needs of all students. I would like to spend more of my time utilizing small groups rather than whole group teaching. Improving my mathematical teaching methods to be more successful has really pushed me to show growth in my cooperative learning methods. I feel that I could have more of an impact on student achievement if the students cold invest more in their own learning process.

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## Meaning Of Fractions, An Understanding Of Wholes

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A common and innocent mistake to avoid—that instructors, teachers, schools and textbooks do all over the world—is the separation of teachings of division and fractions. Fractions are usually taught at a much later time than division, and introduced as a completely new topic. However, the teaching of division

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## The Perfect Opportunity For Learning

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Some researchers have shown a disadvantage in group work with student learning. Lower achieving students could fall behind due to their passive nature or lack of confidence (King, 1993). If the high achieving students dominate the group and discussions, the lower achieving students may not feel comfortable sharing in the discussion. In this instance, the learning opportunity could pass them by without anyone realizing the lack of understanding. Other shortcomings of cooperative learning is the time required for some groups to work cohesively and the inability to teach the curriculum in a small group Cooperative Learning setting (Good, Reys, Grouws, & Mulryan, (1989;1990).

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