To determine which ions are present in the two unknown solutions. This will be accomplished by mixing three known solutions with three testing solutions. You will use this information to determine which ions are present in the unknown solutions.
In reference to the analysis of anions, Table 1 shows that a precipitate was formed when our unknown was combined with HNO3 and AgNO3, thus indicating the presence of a chloride ion. Because our unknown did not form a precipitate due to HCl and BaCl2, separate, effervesce, or smell, we concluded that neither sulfate, nitrate, carbonate nor
Pour 50 mL of distilled water into a 100 mL beaker, and then add the unknown substance into it. Mix thoroughly to create the aqueous solution. Now fill a new cuvette with this new solution and place into the SpectroVis Plus device; after wiping the outside with a Kimwipe as usual. Be sure to take note of the absorbance when wavelength is at its maximum. Afterwards, Be sure to take all solutions containing Iron(III) and pour them into the container specified for hazardous wastes.
Eleven mystery test tubes labeled from K-1 to K-11 contained: 6M H2SO4, 6M NH3, 6M HCl, 6M NaOH, 1M NaCl, 1M Fe(NO3)3, 1M NiSO4, 1M AgNO3, 1M KSCN, 1M Ba(NO3)2, 1M Cu(NO3)2 respectively. The contents of the test tubes were determined by chemical experiments. Solution K-1 contained NiSO4 because when solution K-9, ammonia which was identified by its pungent odor, was added, an inky dark blue color was made. Iron (Fe (NO3)3) was determined to be in test tube K-2. KSCN was found in test tube K-11 since Fe (NO3)3 and KSCN makes a bloody color when mixed together. Flame tests were conducted in which K-8
Water is probably the most important resource we as people have. Humans can survive without food for several weeks, but without water we would die in less than a week. On a slightly less dramatic note, millions of liters of water are needed every day worldwide for washing, irrigating crops, and cooling industrial processes, not to mention leisure industries such as swimming pools and water-sports centers. Despite our dependence on water, we use it as a dumping ground for all sorts of waste, and do very little to protect the water supplies we have.
In some instances lead reacted very similarly with the alkaline earth metal but very different in the other reactions such as with iodide. This is due to lead’s position on the periodic table as compared to those of the alkaline earth metals. The position on the periodic table correlates to an element’s atomic radius, ionization energy, and electron affinity. All of these properties affect an element’s chemical properties such as solubility. A systematic error occurred during my experiment when I observed a reaction between barium and iodide. There should have been no reaction. This error is probably the result of using a test tube that was not cleaned properly prior to combining Ba(NO3)2 with NaI. This experiment reinforced the concepts introduced in Chapter 8 of our textbook.
I came to the conclusion that they should appear (Cl, Br, I) from top to bottom respectively. Based on the previous information regarding mass increases as you go down the periodic table I was able to come to this conclusion. I observed that Cl had the least color concentration, then Br, then I had the most. The greater the color concentration, the greater the mass. This observed data let me come to my conclusion.
In this lab, a lab group will do multiple tests on water for contrasting ions. Tests confirming the absence or presence of the ion. The lab group will be dealing with five distinct solutions. A control sample, tap water sample, ocean water sample, and a distilled water sample. The group will also use a reference solution. A reference solution is a solution with a firm vigorous existence of the ion being tested. So, It is like an example of what the precipitate should look like when the ion is existent and visible in the water sample. The solution may or may not contain an ion. Compare the results with the performance of the reference sample. Finally, if an ion is present, a chemical reaction will happen, making either a precipitate or a solution
The following lab report will discuss an experiment conducted to study the methods in which water can be tested for different metals and anions. This lab report will discuss the methods and results of the second half of the experiment. In the first half, various solutions (each containing either a particular metal or anion) were reacted with a series of substances and the observations were recorded. These observations were then used to develop a separation and identification scheme to test for each particular metal or anion when given a solution of unknown composition. This experiment demonstrates a practical use of precipitate reactions.
The main objective of this experiment is to carry out qualitative analysis to identify metal cations in unknown solution 1.
The cations in both the known and unknown samples were identified by using qualitative analysis, of which were determined to be acidic, basic, or neutral by using litmus paper. Acid-base reactions, oxidation-reduction reactions, and the formation of complex ions are often used in a systematic way for either separating ions or for determining the presence of specific ions. When white precipitate formed after adding hydroxide, aluminum ion was determined to be present in the solution. However, nickel was determined to test positive when the solution changed to a hot pink color after adding a few drops of dimethylglyoxime reagent and iron was present when the solution was a reddish brown color when sodium hydroxide was added to the mixture at the very beginning of the experiment. Qualitative analysis determines that ions will undergo specific chemical reactions with certain reagents to yield observable products to detect the presence of specific ions in an aqueous solution where precipitation reactions play a major role. The qualitative analysis of ions in a mixture must add reagents that exploit the more general properties of ions to separate major groups of ions, separate major groups into subgroups with reactions that will distinguish less general properties, and add reagents that will specifically confirm the presence of individual
When the zinc was added to the copper (II) sulfate solution, the solution started to bubble. As the solution was stirred, it turned a cloudy blue. Small flecks of a brown solid were visible. As the solution became colorless, the brown solid settled to the bottom of the beaker. The solid formed was copper in its elemental state. The color faded from the solution as the copper ions slowly formed into solid copper. The copper was poured into a funnel with filter paper and washed three times with 25 mL
Water is possibly among the most integral resources in the world. Water is one of the main resource for human development, it is even one of the major resources for agriculture, transportation and industrialisation. According to USGC (2015) about 70 percent of the earth is covered with water and from that only 2.5% is fresh water.Though water is an integral part of human life many people do not have access to it. The water (2015) claims that 663 million people or about 1 in 10 people in the world do not have access to fresh water. Industrialisation has aggravated water pollution and that has decreased the amount of freshwater available, one such example of a polluted fresh water river is the Chao Phraya River in Thailand (Greenpeace,2015). As freshwater bodies are becoming more scarce and expensive, fresh water should be provided in the most feasible way possible. This report will illustrate Desalination and Cloud seeding as the two techniques for providing fresh water in the arid regions of the world. Firstly, this report will look at the present situation of arid regions. Next, this report will examine the requirements needed for the techniques such as monetary and environmental requirements. Finally, comparisons would be made between the options and recommendations would be given.
70 % of our Earth surface is covered by water and almost 60% of the human body contain water for nutrient transportation. The unique characteristic of water is water molecule is the only substance in this Earth that exist in all three physical states of matter which are solid, liquid and gas. All human beings need water to survive. The national development over the years cause the rate of water pollution increased. According to Gebre & Rooijen (2009) water pollution can be considered as a sign that derives from economic growth and is a common phenomenon in urbanized cities in developing countries. In general, there are three main issues that related to water pollution which are the causes, effects and the way to decrease this problem.