The Effects and Influences of Enzymes Essay

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Enzymes Enzymes are an important group of proteins that act as biological catalysts i.e. they speed up or slow down the rate of chemical reactions in living organisms. Enzymes are manufactured by cells according to the genetic code carried by the chromosomes; because each enzyme catalyses a specific reaction, it is the enzymes that determine the function of the cell. The structure of enzymes and the nature of their active sites (where they bind to the reacting molecules) can be determined by such techniques as X-ray diffraction. Control of metabolism is largely exerted through regulation of enzyme production and activity, which are inhibited by poisons such as cyanide. Many enzymes require associated non-protein coenzymes to function…show more content…
The enzyme and the substrate join together during the process but once the digestion is complete the enzyme is released once again and the substrate is absorbed into the bloodstream. The enzyme can then work on other molecules that need conversion or it can be reabsorbed into the cells from which it was released. Temperature plays an important role in this entire process. An increase in temperature will increase the molecular movements (as per the kinetic theory of molecules) and thus the reaction rate will considerably go up i.e. the collisions between the molecules will increase and thus reaction will be sped up. Scientists have pointed out that the enzyme reactions increase two times for every ten-degree rise in temperature. However it must be noted that an abnormal rise in temperature (the optimal range being 0-45) can cause the activity to slow down. This is because a rise in temperature beyond forty-five degrees can destroy the enzyme (as it is a protein-based molecule). Therefore a temperature rise up to sixty degrees and/or more can change the enzyme irreversibly i.e. the shape of the enzyme will be changed thereby ruining the active site and so the protein molecule will not be able to function properly anymore. The shape change is irreversible as mentioned earlier and so the enzyme becomes permanently inactive. Contrary to the popular belief
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