The Effects of the Cold War in Asia

3802 Words Mar 21st, 2012 16 Pages
Introduction
The cold war was the name given to the economic, political, military and ideological rivalry that took place between the United States and its allies and the Soviet Union and their allies after World War II. The two powers never directly engaged in military action because both had nuclear weapons that if used, would have had devastating consequences for both sides. Alternatively, proxy wars were fought. A proxy war results when opposing powers use third parties as substitutes for fighting one another and is typically initiated by a power that does not itself participate. The Korean and Vietnam wars are two examples of proxy wars because the U.S. and the Soviet Union did not engage each other however, Soviet attempts to
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forces crossed the 38th parallel into North Korea. The People’s Republic of China warned U.N. troops that if they crossed the 38th parallel, they would enter the war. MacArthur however, reassures President Truman who is apprehensive over the news that they would not enter the war. However, on November 23rd 1950, about 200,000 Chinese troops crossed the Yalu River and attacked U.N. forces prompting a bold retreat and an immediate withdraw of troops. By December 24th 1950, the navy evacuated approximately 100,000 U.N. and South Korean troops and roughly as many refugees. General Matthew B. Ridgeway replaced General Walton Walker who died at the end of December 1950. His deployment began Christmas day and he commenced the rebuilding of the Eighth Army. Seoul, which had been recaptured by U.N. forces in October, was abandoned in early January 1951. Nevertheless, by March 27th 1951, the Eighth Army took back Seoul and reached the 38th parallel. In November 1952, the United Nations changed their policy towards the war and approved a defensive strategy. However, the war entered a deadlock both politically and militarily. In January 1953, Dwight Eisenhower succeeded Harry Truman as President of the United States. Determined to resolve the deadlock and end the Korean War, he threatened to use nuclear weapons against China if they did not agree to a peaceful solution. Finally, after three years of conflict, an armistice…