The Efficacy Of Self Management Education

Decent Essays
A Study of the Efficacy of Self-Management Education in Heart Failure Outcomes Heart failure (HF) has been singled out as an epidemic and is a staggering clinical and public health problem, associated with significant mortality, morbidity, and healthcare expenditures, particularly among those aged 65 and older (Roger et al., 2013). HF is a major health care issue with a current prevalence of over 5.8 million in the USA and over 23 million worldwide, and rising. The lifetime risk of developing HF is one in five and carries substantial morbidity and mortality. Despite advances in management, the 5-year mortality rivals that of many cancers.
Over 2.4 million patients who are hospitalized have HF as a primary or secondary diagnosis, and
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Despite advances in the control of cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction (MI), the incidence and prevalence of HF continues to increase. As the population ages, there is an epidemiological shift toward a greater prevalence of clinical heart failure with preserved left ventricular function. In fact, heart failure with preserved systolic function may account for up to two thirds of cases in patients older than 70 years. Regardless of age, the lifetime risk of developing heart failure is approximately 20% for all patients older than 40 years. Patients with CAD and concomitant heart failure have a worse prognosis than those with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (Ramani et al., 2010). Bui et al. (2011) states that in addition to older age, male sex, and ethnicity other factors indicate increased risk for development of HF such as hypertension diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, obesity, renal failure, psychological stress and environmental factors such as low socioeconomic status. As elderly individuals are disproportionately affected by HF, multiple other comorbid conditions are frequently present with HF. Therefore, practitioners must deal with the HF, but also other conditions and the potential adverse risks from poly-pharmacy. The risk of preventable hospitalizations and mortality is strongly increased with the number of comorbid conditions (Bui et al., 2011). Additionally, Rogers et al., (2013) states “that HF specific
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