The Eight Guidelines to Critical Thinking

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Grant Anderson Psychology 101 Mid-term Essay Paper 10/27/2008 The Eight Guidelines to Critical Thinking In the discipline of Psychology, there are eight guidelines to critical thinking. This essay will discuss all of them with examples to help understand each one. The first is to Ask Questions: Be willing to wonder (Wade & Travis, 2008 p.8). Young children may ask questions such as, “Why is the sky blue Mommy?” “Why doesn’t the plane fall?” Why don’t pigs have wings?” Unfortunately, as children grow up, they tend to stop asking “why” questions. Why is this the case? Vincent Ruggiero (1988) observed, “The trigger mechanism for creative thinking is the disposition to be curious, to wonder, to…show more content…
Several popular books have asserted, without any evidence that most women suffer from it. However, the evidence shows that many women do have physical symptoms associated with menstruation including cramps, breast tenderness, and water retention, although many women vary in this regard. So to with emotional symptoms associated with menstruation-notably depression irritability that only about five percent of all women have such symptoms over their cycles. The fourth essential guideline to critical thinking is to analyze assumptions and biases (Wade & Travis 2008, p. 10). Assumptions are beliefs that are taken for granted. Critical thinkers try to identify and evaluate the unspoken assumptions on which claims and arguments may rest. When assumptions or beliefs keep us from considering the evidence fairly or completely, it becomes biased. For example, most people assume that second-place winners feel happier than third-place winners do. But when physiologists questioned this assumption, they found that the opposite is true. This is because a second-place winner compares himself to the first-place winner. They think of what may have been. They are unhappy that they did not become the winner. The third-place winner compares themselves to those that did worse than they did and is happier that they came in third rather than losing the game. The
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