The El Nino Southern Oscillation

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Abstract The El-Niño Southern Oscillation is a complex sequence of natural climate variations that take place in the tropics of the Pacific Ocean, yet affect the climate of the entire globe. The climate phenomenon, known as ENSO, has three main phases that each differ markedly in their atmospheric and oceanic conditions. El Niño, also known as “the warm phase”, is the first cycle that begins when warm water in the eastern Pacific Ocean shifts to the west toward South America. During El Niño, the east-to-west trade winds halt and sometimes reverse directions, causing significant disturbances in the biological life of the Pacific Ocean. Conversely, La Niña is the complete opposite of El Niño. La Niña, also called “the cold phase” brings unusually strong east-to-west winds and colder temperatures along the equatorial Pacific. Both phases have consequences that affect the regular atmospheric conditions of the world; El Niño is linked to both droughts and floods, La Niña is linked to extreme tropical cyclones and monsoon rains. The climatic events also have relationships to forest fires, economic changes, famine, plagues and widespread crop failure. The study of ENSO is necessary in order to attempt to reveal patterns and key factors that can affect the intensity and severity of this phenomenon that occurs globally on average every two to seven years. Introduction The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is one of the most important natural climatic phenomena on
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