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The Endocrine Part Of The Pancreas

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The endocrine part of the pancreas consists of pancreatic islets (islets of the Langerhans). Insulin and glucagon are hormones secreted by islet cells of the pancreas. Both of these hormones are secreted depending on the blood glucose levels. Alpha cells of the pancreatic islets secrete glucagon and beta cells of the pancreatic islets secrete insulin (Marieb, 2012). Insulin and glucagon are equally vital in managing blood glucose, making sure the body functions well.

Glucose, which comes from the food we eat, is important for every body system. A decline in the blood glucose level below its normal range causes the nervous system to function erratically because glucose is its main source of energy. Insulin and glucagon hormones partner
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Some of the fatty acids are converted by the liver into acidic ketones as fats are broken down, (Lienhard, G., 1992), which are released into the blood stream.

Insulin is normally secreted by the beta cells (a type of islet cell) of the pancreas. Insulin secretion is triggered by high blood glucose level and increased parasympathetic stimulation that is associated with digestion of a meal. Decreased insulin secretion results from decreasing blood glucose levels and from stimulation by the sympathetic division of the nervous system (Seeley and Stephens, 2005). Sympathetic stimulation of the pancreas increase during physical activities. Decreased insulin levels allow blood glucose to be conserved to provide the brain with adequate glucose and to allow other tissues to metabolize fatty acids and glycogen stored in the cells.

Insulin binds to membrane–bound receptors and, either directly or indirectly, increases the rate of glucose and amino acid uptake in different tissues. For insulin, the major target tissues are the the area of the hypothalamus that controls appetite, called the satiety centre. liver, adipose tissue, muscles and Glucose is converted to glycogen and fat and the amino acids are used to synthesize protein.

Storage of excess glucose for energy. After eating — when insulin levels are high — excess glucose is stored in the liver in the form of glycogen (Marieb, 2012). Between meals — when insulin levels are low — the
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