The Endoplasmic Reticulum

1644 WordsFeb 17, 20187 Pages
1. Introduction The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the central intracellular organelle providing stringent quality control systems to protein synthesis. Upon accumulation of misfolded/ unfolded proteins in the ER, eukaryotic cells have developed an evolutionarily conserved adaptive mechanism, unfolded protein response (UPR), to clear these proteins and restore ER homeostasis. The ability to respond to perturbations in ER function is critical for cell survival but chronic or amplified ER stress can lead to apoptosis to protect the organism by removing the stressed cells. Growing evidence suggests that ER stress-mediated apoptosis may contribute to pathophysiological processes involved in a number of diseases such as neurodegenerative disease, diabetes, atherosclerosis and renal disease [1]. This term paper intends to address (i) ER stress-mediated signaling, (ii) molecular mechanisms linking ER stress to apoptosis and (iii) a potential role of ER stress in autoimmunity in the context of type I diabetes. 2. The Endoplasmic Reticulum The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an essential organelle that is a major place for the biogenesis of cellular components including proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates and internal calcium storage. ER is primarily responsible for protein translocation, protein folding and protein post modification. Proper folding of protein in the ER is accomplished with the aid of ER resident proteins or enzymes such as chaperones. Binding of chaperones to
Open Document