As stated in Preventing Violence in America, social exchange theory suggests that individual’s trade emotions for other emotions (Hampton, Jenkins, Gullotta, 1996, pp. 24) thus, partners focus on the positive results and negative results of their relationships such as social rewards, materialistic glam, and opportunities. Domestic violence in this stage is connected to commitment, people are willing to comprise and stay
Throughout the world, we hear many stories about individuals being victimized, and individuals who have are the perpetrators. Also, many of these news segments are based off of headed situations between intimate relationships. Many relationships become this way because of stress about work, paying bills, past circumstances, and much more. There are many micro and macro level risk factors that pertain to victims (prior history of intimate partner violence, female sex, and youth), and perpetration (anger issues, low self-esteem, low income, and depression). “These factors are some of the very important factors that shape victimization and perpetration in intimate partner violence” (Seccombe, 2015, p.318).
A victim’s mind does not enter into an abusive relationship the same as it, hopefully escapes. Most people are familiar with the honeymoon stage of a new relationship, the excitement, infatuation and methodical self-disclosure that most, if not all people experience and engage in. The gradualism of an abusive relationship is one critical piece of a frightening puzzle.
Many women and men seek intimate relationships in order to fill their emotional needs of security, safety and love. Their journey starts off with their loved ones spoiling them with flattering gifts and emotional words. The love they feel is so wonderful and deep that they believe that nothing can come between them. They are so happy and convinced that they will live happily ever after with the one they love. Unfortunately, the fairytale they have dreamt about was only temporary and soon comes to an end. The love story they have ones longed for turns into a horrible nightmare. The emotional words they were once spoiled with turn into howling screams and name-calling. The flattering gifts turn into physical abuse. This relationship is referred to as domestic violence or intimate partner violence. This happens when a partner or significant other declares power, authority and control over the other partner. To maintain this authority and control, the abusive partner uses emotional, physical or sexual abuse over his victim (Alters 27). Victims will desperately look for an exit out of this relationship, but only to be blocked by numerous walls of the despair, fear and misery. Many people are convinced that victims have the option of leaving, but they are too weak and they choose not to. What many people don 't know is, victims of domestic violence have many reasons preventing them from leaving their abusers. In most cases the outcomes of leaving are
Involving education, Black women had some form of college education while Hispanic women were mostly high school graduates. Most of the Black women participants (two-thirds) were employed, while Hispanic women had a less than half who were employed. For income levels, Hispanic women made less than $5,000 dollars annually in comparison to Black women only earning 10,000 annually (Lacey, 2010, p.673). Regarding socioeconomic status, income was a significant factor for Hispanic women’s decision to either leave or stay in the relationship with those who earned a higher salary. With relationship investment for Black women, mostly married women stayed with their abuser. Also, Black women who lived in homes that occupied two or more adults stayed in violent relationships more than those who stayed in homes with fewer adults. Lastly, for psychological abuse, both Black and Hispanic women tended to leave violent relationships when they have experienced different forms of psychological abuse, particularly with cursing and being shouted at (Lacey, 2010, p. 673). Overall, a majority of Black and Hispanic that were abused did not leave their abuser when conducted the study and Black women had a higher rate of staying in violent relationships than Hispanic
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious public health problem in youth and young adults. Serious short- and long-term consequences of IPV, coupled with high prevalence, have driven researchers to formulate theoretical frameworks to explain why individuals engage in abusive behaviors toward their partners.
This article comes from the Journal of Interpersonal Violence. The title of the article is A Comparison of Women of Color and Non-Hispanic White Women on Factors Related to Leaving a Violent Relationship. This study compares women of color and non-Hispanic White women regarding the influence of socioeconomic status, family investment, and psychological abuse on leaving a violent relationship. Women of color and non-Hispanic White women did not differ in their length or rate of leaving, although women of color left more frequently when they did leave. Women of color with higher socioeconomic status were less likely to leave, which was not the case for non-Hispanic White women.
The prevalence of domestic violence in the United States is that it is occurring far more often than many individuals would choose to admit. This form of violence is by no means new and culturally the problem itself does not discriminate, there is no specific criteria that completely omits one from becoming a victim of domestic violence. The dynamics of domestic violence consist of the aggressor utilizing violence to maintain dominance and control over the victim. The victimization that is consistent with domestic violence can come in various forms including, physical, sexual, psychological, mental/emotional, and financial. Domestic violence victimization is a cycle that usually is difficult to terminate by many victims as well as aggressors. Individuals involved in abusive relationships continue to remain in them for various reasons such as, maintaining financial stability, desire or hope that things will change overtime, fear that their abuser, will further harm them for leaving the relationship, embarrassment of their situation, or there may be children involved and the victims wants to avoid some of the harsh realities associated with a broken home. Oftentimes domestic violence victims blame themselves for the violence encountered by their abusers, figuring that if they do things differently the next time, maybe they won’t be victimized again by their partner. Conversely, violence committed by abusers is often self-driven and hinges on very minor actions executed by the
A relationship is formed when there is a mental connection creating a bond between two people. There are multiple types of relationships that being said, a relationship between two people can have different meanings. Although relationships come in different types, it’s important to understand that all relationships have boundaries that must be acknowledged. In this paper, I will cover healthy vs. unhealthy relationships. I will discuss factors followed by a unhealthy relationships and what triggers the perpetrator to act on domestic violence and the reasons why victims (women) choose to stay. I will also go into detail on how culture has an impact when making decisions regarding a marriage. Finally, I will wrap up with health concerns that women may encounter due to verbal, physical, and emotional violence. Other concerns that need to be considered when in a relationships that goes unhealthy will also be covered. My reason for choosing this topic is the amount of interest I have in learning more about severe conditions relating to relationships. Often times I see and hear about people in relationships that are more of a threat in their life rather than a partner and continue to remain that way.
To begin with, Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) has been around for a very long time and it is still a present issue in the United States. There are many forms intimate partner violence such as, sexual, physical, emotional, and psychological. IPV occurs among all religious, socioeconomic, and cultural groups in the United States and other countries. As many people know intimate partner violence tends to come with consequences after the damage is done to the victim. Intimate partner violence does not just happen out of nowhere where the perpetrator thinks they have the right to be violent towards their spouse. The issue of IPV is connected to the cycle of violence in ways that it gives you an idea as to why the perpetrator thinks they have the right to hit the victim. In many cases not only do they think they have the right to due such thing but also feel like they have control over their spouse and have a mindset that they own them and will do anything just to keep them. Often the perpetrators feel guilty for being violent towards their loved ones that they come to a point of being apologetic and doing anything in their power to keep them. This author believes that intimate partner violence is a big issue and for many victims it is hard for them to escape the relationship. The victims go through so much in staying in the relationship that once they decide to definitely leave the relationship they end up suffering consequences and seeking available resources to
Arnocky, S., Sunderani, S., Gomes, W., & Vaillancourt, T. (2015). Anticipated partner infidelity and men’s intimate partner violence: The mediating role of anxiety. Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences, 9(3), 186-196. doi:10.1037/ebs0000021
The model demonstrates the interaction ‘between individual, relationship, community and societal factors’ (CDC, 2015). The first level identifies individual factors which can increase the likelihood to become a victim or a perpetrator. Individual factors can be; the age, low level of education, but also violent childhood, sexual abuse in childhood as well as alcohol and drugs and personality disorders (CDC, 2015 and WHO ,2012, p.4).The second level of the model describes the relationship factors; this can be conflicts in the partnership such as displeasure or the women has a higher education as her partner which leads to /or increase low self-esteem by the male partner but also economic inequalities can be crucial ( CDC,2015 and WHO ,2012, p.4).The third and fourth level ( community and societal factors) developed through diverse studies with regard to intimidate partner violence and demonstrates the influences of environment such as poverty, social acceptance of violence, belief of gender role and misconstruction of norms, such as the man has the right to discipline the women or the women deserves punishment ,but also low social and economic status are determined ( CDC ,2015 and WHO ,2012, p.4).Studies occupy that intimate partner violence has massively physical and psychosomatically consequences to the victims. Moreover, other pathways such as chronic sicknesses such as depressions, phobias and other disease can arise. Accordingly, to the WHO (2012) and FRA (2012) survey, women who experienced domestic violence have a higher risk to commit suicide compared with women in a non-abusive relationship. In addition, violence can lead to reproductive health consequences such as abortion, unwanted pregnancies, miscarriages and negative sexual behaviour. Above all, evidence shows that also the
Some women take the position that “hope springs eternal” for people in love and they shouldn’t be held accountable for the abusive spousal choices they make. That is precisely the kind of romantic notion that men and women cling to and use to seduce them into staying in relationships in which there is abundant evidence that they should leave. Often friends and parents try to intervene but when “hope springs eternal” obvious dangers are overlooked, denied and women tell themselves something like, “If I just love him enough, he’ll change.” Battered men usually say exactly the same things. “What is needed in situations of verbal and physical abuse and danger is not romantic fantasy but a critical and self-protective assessment of the facts followed by a decision based on those facts”(Walker 17).
The CDC reports that nearly half of all men and women in the United States have been psychologically abused by a romantic partner, while around a quarter of women and 1 in 7 men have been physically abused . This is a dramatic difference from areas like the United Kingdom, where 8.2% of women and 4% of men have been abused  One in three people experience abuse by a romantic partner by the age of eighteen . In 2015, 87% of hospitalized abuse victims in New York state were women, and were admitted more often than male victims . This can likely be partially attributed to traditional gender roles, which assume that men are “stronger” than women and are “weak” if they are hurt by a woman.
Every year in the United States, One in four women are victims of the domestic violence; however, this is only based on what has been reported to the department of justice (Stahly 2008). While men are also victims of domestic violence, women are more often the victims. Moreover, 90% of domestic violence is male initiated. In severe cases domestic violence ends with victims being murdered. More specifically, domestic violence resulted in 2,340 deaths in the United States in 2007, and 70% of those killed were females (CDC 2012). Many people think that victims have the option of leaving and many people blame victims for putting up with the abuse; what many people don 't know is, victims of domestic violence have many reasons preventing them from leaving their abusers, these reasons include, isolation, having children bounding them with the abuser and lack of financial support. "It 's never pretty when you leave an abusive and controlling relationship. The warden always protests when a prison gets shut down," says Dr. Steve Maraboli (qtd from web). Whether a victim stays or leaves their abuser, the outcomes of both situations are not always as easy as many people predict. In some situations, the outcomes of leaving may be very dangerous for both the victim and her children.