The Erradication of Poliomyelitis: Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV), and Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV)

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Introduction

Poliomyelitis, commonly known as “Polio”, is an acute motor disease caused by the poliovirus that targets the anterior horn cells of the human spinal cord, and in severe cases results in acute flaccid paralysis (Alberta Health and Wellness, 2011), which can progress to permanent paralysis. It mainly affects children under the age of five, although individuals of any age may contract it (World Health Organization, 2013 [C]). Historical outbreaks, most prominently the 1916 and 1952 epidemics in the United States, led to the development of two separate vaccines: Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV), and Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV). Although polio has seen over a 99% decrease in cases since 1988 and has largely been eradicated in the
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The grey matter has a butterfly-like shape with two protrusions: the dorsal (or posterior) horn, which contains neurons responsible for sensory perception, and the ventral (or anterior) horn, which contains neurons responsible for muscle control. There are two types of motor neurons: upper motor neurons, located in the motor region of the cerebral cortex of the brain, and lower motor neurons, located in the brainstem and spinal cord.

The muscular system, composed of 700 different muscles, makes up approximately half of a person’s body weight and is responsible for movement, posture, balance, and bodily heat generation (Taylor, n.d.). Muscles are divided into three main categories: smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and skeletal muscle. Smooth muscle makes up the inner walls of all organs and blood vessels. It is controlled by the autonomic nervous system and is responsible for involuntary contractions of these structures. Cardiac muscle, an involuntary striated muscle found exclusively in the heart, is controlled by the sinoatrial node. Contraction of cardiac muscle allows for propulsion of blood throughout the circulatory system, a process responsible for the transport of oxygen and nutrients to bodily cells. Skeletal muscle, a voluntary striated type of muscle that is composed of all muscle connecting to the skeleton, is responsible for the majority of the heat generated by the muscular system and

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