The Essays on Physiognomy, written in 19th century, was a paper which tried to describe in a “scientific” way how to understand in minutes the character of a person, based only in his physical traits (Lavater, 1880). The paper, which was based in the same principles of phrenology, became extreme popular; even if there was nothing supporting the unfounded conclusions of this essay, like the relation between close eyebrows and stable personality! Still, the popularity of this paper shows the urge of humans to create and trust quick impressions for others. A predetermination which can be so important in an evolutionary basis- a fast impression for someone attentions lead to a faster response- that lead some scientists to propose that this…show more content… Additionally, he discussed order effects. Primacy effects were associated with the first items in the list which affected impressions more, while recency effects had to do with the fact that the last items affected impressions more. He also talked about the halo effect, in which the positive or negative evaluation associated with some traits spreads to others. Moreover, he supported that impressions have structure and that the meanings of their elements (traits) depend on which other elements are present.
Implicit personality theory is a network of assumptions that individuals hold about relationships between people, behaviors and traits. Research has shown that if we know- or believe- that someone has one particular trait, this leads us to infer that they have other traits as well (Schneider, 1973; Selikides & Anderson, 1994). As we will discuss next, this very useful in cases individual try to create a positive impression on others.
Research has also suggested that information which is initially presented is more powerful in forming a general impression, either because new information about a person always means simply updating the first impression - which always stays there or because individuals tend to pay much more attention to the information that we encounter first in order to form an impression, thus assimilating it better (Anderson 1962, 1965).
The Algebraic Model by Anderson (1965) holds that there is a