The Etiology And Prevalence Of Asd

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Autism spectrum disorder is not a single disorder, it comprises of a very diverse group of neurodevelopmental disorders. According to the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder 5th edition (DSM-V), diagnosis of ASDs includes three main deficits which are; having difficulties with social interaction and communication and deficit in behaviour, for example individual with ASD tend to repeat the same behaviour and they tend to be preoccupied. Under the DSM- V ASD consist of Asperger syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) and childhood disintegrative. This essay will discuss the Etiology and prevalence of ASD as well as the treatments and interventions for ASD. Research study findings will be used as evidence to support the efficacy of these treatments for ASD. Finally this essay will briefly consider some limitations of these treatments. Several empirical researches suggest that ASD is heritable and that genetic component is the key factor involved in vulnerability to ASD; most of this evidence comes from twins and family studies. Silverman et al (2002) supports the claim that ASD is genetically determined. They found that ASD was present in multiple cases within extended families. Similarly, researchers have shown that ASD is linked with several genes, such as GABRA4, GABRA2, GABRA3 etc. Ma et al., (2005), provides support for this claim, they found that GABRA4, GABRR2, GABRA2 and GABRB1 are all linked to ASD.
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