The Evidence For Top Down Influences On Spoken Word Recognition

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Discuss the evidence for top-down influences on spoken word recognition. What is the best way of accounting for these effects? Introduction One fundamental issue in the study of spoken word recognition is concerned with how and when bottom-up information (i.e., raw acoustic input) is integrated with top-down knowledge (i.e., lexical, morpho-syntactic and semantic information) when processing speech, if at all. Interactive accounts, represented by the TRACE model, acknowledge top-down flow of information as one essential route within its theoretical portrait of a bi-directional spread of activation when processing spoken words, as in contrast to autonomous ones, such as the SHORTLIST B model, which endorse a unidirectional bottom-up approach. The paper discussed both positive and negative empirical evidence for top-down effects in speech perception following a chronological order in line with two influential theoretical accounts (i.e., Interactive versus Autonomous) to shed light on a more comprehensive understanding of spoken word recognition. In particular, this discussion aims to argue that the role for top-down influences on spoken word could be better consolidated empirically, only when the idea of top-down flow is more rigorously conceptualized. Early evidence One long running approach to investigate how does higher-level information influence speech perception focuses on testing if lexical knowledge influences phoneme perception through top-down feedback, or

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