The Evolution Of Modern-Day Cancer Therapy : The Development Of Cancer

1897 WordsNov 26, 20178 Pages
The Evolution of modern-day cancer therapy began during the 19th century when a chemical agent called nitrogen mustard caused lymph tissues and the one marrow of exposed individuals to be destroyed (Behrens et al., 2015). Later, during the following years, the spotlight was on alkylating agents and nitrogen mustard as they seemed promising in the treatment of a few haematological malignancies such as Hodgkin’s disease, multiple myeloma, leukaemia and lymphoma (Andreev et al., 2017). Several unexpected breakthroughs brought about the development of cytotoxins. Notwithstanding the immense progression in the cancer chemotherapy field, small-molecule drugs even though they were highly potent, were risky due to their non-specific toxicity due…show more content…
Non-human antibodies were used previously which were mAbs based on either murine or chimeric antibodies which had been altered to target human antigens, but because they were non-human, they induced an immune response which led to unsuccessful treatment (Ding W., 2013). These mAbs were also very large in size which lead to limited tumor penetration alongside with poor therapeutic effects which led to advances in the engineering of antibodies including the reduction of immunogenicity and a huge increase in antibody-based drug formation (Fishkin et al., 2014). By successfully binding to tumor-associated or tumor-specific cell surface antigens, the therapeutic effects of a mAbs is exerted. When a mAb binds, it attacks and kills a tumor cells using a single or numerous methods including tumor cell signalling abrogation which eventually leads to the process of apoptosis, T-cell function modulation by ADCC (Ding W., 2013). Complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) also complement-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (CDCC) are also methods in which mAbs kill tumor cells and finally the inhibitory effect exertion on stroma and on tumor vasculature (Fishkin et al., 2014). Although many different methods are available to attack and kill cells, the majority of mAbs show deficient activity of cytotoxicity. Combining both the selectivity of mAbs and chemotherapeutic small

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