The Exactly Same Situation Experienced By Two People From

1276 WordsApr 30, 20176 Pages
The exactly same situation experienced by two people from different cultures can have a completely different meaning to each of them (Hall, 1967). Those cultural differences can stem from various sources such as country of origin, religious background, gender and social class (Hofstede, 1991) to name just a few. Those layers of culture mean that it can be very difficult to understand another human being if their layers are different, which can lead to problems and miscommunication at an intercultural workplace. Furthermore, it might even lead to employees feeling irritated as they see the other person as uncontrollable and unpredictable (Hall, 1967). As Hall (1990) says ´in order to understand man, one must know something of the nature of…show more content…
In Mapping and Interpreting Cultural Differences, (2004) Shalom Schwartz presents another take on cultural differences. His survey included teachers and students from 70 nations and resulted in the definition of six dimensions in three pairs. Autonomy vs Embeddedness, Egalitarianism vs Hierarchy and Harmony vs Mastery. Schwartz presents his dimensions in a circle and those cultural orientations which are compatible are adjacent in the circle. Schwartz assumes that if a country is associated with egalitarianism it will at the same time put emphasize on intellectual autonomy as these dimensions share the same values, for example. This is in contrast to Hofstede’s presentation as he conceptualizes his dimensions as independent (Schwartz, 2004). Edward T. Hall developed his cultural dimensions and presented them separately in individual books. His three dimensions refer to different perceptions of space, context and time (Hall, 1969, 1989, 1989a). In his research Hall conducted interviews and investigated sources such as newspaper articles. Lastly, in Riding the Waves of Culture , first published in 1993, Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner defined seven dimensions. Those are Universalism vs Particularism, Individualism vs Communitarianism, Affective vs. Neutral Cultures, Specific vs Diffuse Cultures, Achievement vs. Ascription, Time Orientations and Orientations to Nature (Trompenaars & Hampden-Turner, 1997). Trompenaar recognizes that their work
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