The Existence of Different Types of Cultures

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Every society has a culture, in fact, every human being is cultured. In our daily usage of the word 'culture', we often just refer it as a custom or tradition of certain group of people, or else the higher desirable quality we can acquire after paying a hard effort such as playing piano. However the definition of culture is not as simple as that but it refers to countless aspects of life which include every simple elements at whole (Linton, 1945). In general, the social scientists often refer to the Tylor's definition of culture when defining culture: "Culture... is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, arts, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society" (Tylor, 1958, p.…show more content…
Hence, cultural diffusion could be seen being employed by borrowing or replacing the recognised shared customs. Yet, it is created spontaneously within the dominant culture in other words (Williams, 1990). The third type of the culture is counterculture. Literately, it is a culture where the values, practice and lifestyle are against the social norms or those establish mainstream culture. Obvious difference was noted as compared to dominant and subculture, counterculture has more freedom and portrayed as rebellious. According to Yinger (1982), power, reciprocity and culture are the base of the social order that leads to the derivation of counterculture from the dominant normative culture. Clark (2003) too, emphasized that it is the deviation from norms. Counterculture more readily to occur under circumstances that narrowing the sense of belonging to a cognate group, a society, an identity group, or a nation. Those who practice counterculture set up their own standard and manner which harden when it is defy by the outsiders of the group ( Calvert & Calvert, 1992). “A countercultural movement is both behavioral and symbolic” (Yinger, 1982, p. 23). For instance, during the 1960s, the hippie counterculture has blossomed throughout the entire United States. They established their own communities, listened to psychedelic rock, embraced
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