The Figurative Language

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In this research, the researcher discusses the figurative language based on Perrine’s perception. According to Perrine (1977:61-109), figurative language consists of 12 kinds, they are: simile, metaphor, personification, apostrophe, synecdoche, metonymy, symbol, allegory, paradox, hyperbole/overstatement, understatement, and irony.
What follows are explanation about the figurative language based on Perrine’s perception:

1. Simile
Simile is a phrase that uses the words like or as to describe someone or something by comparing it with someone or something else that is similar. Simile and metaphor genuinely have an identical definition. Both of them compare two things that absolutely different. Simile is the explicit comparison of two things,
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Personification
Personification is a figure of speech in which a thing, an idea or an animal is given human attributes. The non-human objects are portrayed in such a way that we feel they have the ability to act like human beings. Personification is the figurative language that is giving the attribute of human beings to animal, an object or a concept. It is sub type of metaphor, an implied comparison in which the figurative term of the comparison is always human being. (Perrine, 1977: 64).
According to Pradopo (2003: 75), the ancient poets until today’s poets have used personification. It is comparison between inanimate things and person. Personification makes the poet’s language is a live. It gives the clarity in the reader’s mind of a certain object
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Also known as turne tale, aversio, and aversion. Apostrophe defined as addressing someone absent or something non human as if it was a live and present and could reply to what is being said (Perrine, 1977:65).Apostrophe is also a form of personification in which nonhuman or in animate thing is directly addressed as if it were human or animate.

5. Synecdoche
Synecdoche is a literary device in which a part of something represents the whole or it may use a whole to represent a part. Synecdoche is the use of the part for the whole. (Perrine, 1977:67). Pradopo (1999:79) divides synecdoche into two parts: they are Pars pro toto and Totem proparte. Pars pro toto is a part for the whole and totem proparte is when the whole things stand for its part.
6. Metonymy
It is a figure of speech that replaces the name of a thing with the name of something else with which it is closely associated. We can come across examples of metonymy both from literature and in everyday life. Metonymy is the use of something closely related to the thing actually meant (Perrine, 1977:67). It can be considered that metonymy is the substitution of a word naming an object for another word closely associated

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