The First Three Phases Of The War, The Bohemian Phase ( 1618-1625 )

1346 WordsNov 2, 20146 Pages
The thirty years war was an important conflict in the Holy Roman Empire that started in 1618 and ended in 1648. It was fought between the German states and the Emperor; it was fought between Catholics and Protestants, and it was also fought between outside nations against each other. The thirty years war started with religious rivalries between Catholics and Protestants with some political ambitions, but eventually developed mainly into a war of dynastic ambitions with many groups attempting to gain political power over their opponents. The first three phases of the war, the Bohemian phase (1618-1625), the Danish phase (1625-1629), and the Swedish Phase (1630-1635) were mainly fought over religious reasons with Catholics on one side and Protestants on the other. Lutheranism was accepted in the Holy Roman Empire since the Peace of Augsburg in 1555, but Calvinism wasn’t. However, many states still turned Calvinist, including the Palatinate whose ruler was one of the seven people that elected the Holy Roman Emperor. In 1608, led by the Palatinate, the protestant groups formed a protestant union. The Protestant states wanted to gain more rights and weaken the empire by remaining independent. In response, some Catholic states formed the Catholic union in 1609 led by Bavaria. The Austrian Habsburgs wanted to completely eradicate Protestantism that was threatening the stability of their Empire. The tension between these two sides was what caused war to break out when the

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