The Fitt's and Posner's Phases of Learning
In 1967 Paul Fitts (Fitts) and Michael Posner (Posner) developed the Classic Stages of learning model. They detailed the kinds of changes and phases that learners go through when acquiring skill.
The three stages of learning of the Fitts and Posner model are best understood as reflecting a continuum of practice time. The cognitive stage represents the first portion of the continuum. This is followed by the associative stage and then the autonomous stage. The transition from one stage to the next is not abrupt; on the contrary, it is gradual and the transition is difficult to detect as the learner may at any point in time be at a particular stage or in…show more content… It is difficult for the beginner to perform the skill successfully in a game situation but they can spend time watching other players use the skill in the appropriate circumstance. For example if the activity was a hockey push pass, the person could watch teams play on television, watch club matches and see the skill performed at elite level. This way the skill is able to be put in to context and the purpose explained. The beginner can start to appreciate the routine and movements of the skill.
Verbalising the skill is important for the beginner. A good example of verbalising required actions is in dance. For example 'side, together, side, hop, side, split'. In sport this may be more focused on limbs involved as the beginner pays all their attention to the details of the action rather than watching what is happening around them. Therefore it is extremely important that practices set at this stage are very simple. The beginner must receive lots of time and space to perform the skill so that they have a chance to concentrate on achieving it. If we take a hockey 'push' pass as an example, and simple passing between two will allow the beginner to concentrate on the technique of actually passing the ball. The players know where each other are, they have no time pressure, lots of space and no opposition. As the performer becomes a little more comfortable, very limited opposition