For centuries the development of nursing knowledge has been influenced by numerous theorists and their respective theories. These theories have influenced, and continue to influence, nursing education, practice and research. (Johnson & Webber, 2005)
After previously writing about Caper’s (1978) pattern of knowledge defined as personal knowledge I started to reflect back up on each day of what had previously occurred? What had led to the situation? And what could have I done differently to have bettered my relationship with patients? Searching for these answers during my daily practice has opened self-exploration into what nursing means to me. Within this paper I will discuss my philosophy of nursing, my personal definition of nursing, and what guided me towards becoming
Therefore, it is necessary to examine the nature of nursing and the knowledge base nurses bring to the clinical setting to define the scope of nursing practice (Berragan, 1998). To better understand nursing practice, Barbara Carper in 1978 identified four patterns of knowing nurses adopt in clinical practice. They are empiric knowing, ethical knowing, personal knowing, and aesthetic knowing.
The knowing addresses how nurses understand the knowledge. The doing of nursing entails the actions of nurses, bringing both knowledge and practice together (Butts and Rich, 2015). The four patterns of knowing, developed by Carper, include empirics. ethics, aesthetics, and personal knowledge. Empirical knowledge is the scientific aspect of knowing. It is based on general knowledge, and usually shared with other disciplines such sociologists and psychologists. Ethical knowledge involves morals and judgement. This is used when determining right or good acts in nursing practice, ensuring that the best decision is made and is right for the patient. Aesthetic knowledge, the art aspect of nursing, involve of the nurse’s understanding and acknowledgment of other’s living experiences. Showing empathy and respect to patients as they experience their life’s journey. Personal knowledge entails self-awareness and others, and interpersonal skills. These four patterns of knowing shows that nursing practice consist of holistic patient care, and not being solely scientific
According to Carper, one pattern described in the pattern of knowing is aesthetics. Aesthetics is essentially empathy, or having the capacity to understand what another person is experiencing (Carper, 1978). Aesthetics is purely subjective, exclusive, and open to interpretation. “Aesthetics require from the nurse to be fully engaged in the moment of the experience and interpret a client situation all at once by elucidating the meaning of the process and looking beyond the situation to focus on what might be (envisioning), so as to act according to what has been envisioned (Mantzorou & Mastrogiannis, 2011, p. 253). In essence, aesthetics is the process of nursing that involves caring for our
There are different types of knowledge and different ways of knowing. Four fundamental concepts of knowing in nursing highlighted by Caper (1978) are empirical, personal, ethical and aesthetic. He divided knowledge into two forms which are tacit and explicit. Tacit is insights and based on experience and not easily visible and expressible, difficult to share and communicate with others which is highly personal. Empirical sources of knowledge depend upon an individual’s manner of observing and responding to events in the outside world (Higgs et al, 2004). Whereas explicit is formal and based on rationality and easily can be expressed, shared, communicate which are highly universal principles. Rationalism comes from within the individual and
Carper (1978) identified four fundamental patterns of knowing which are (1) empirics, or the science of nursing; (2) personal knowledge; (3) esthetics, or the art of nursing; and (4) ethics, or the moral component of nursing. The purpose of this discussion is to explain how each pattern of knowing affects this author’s practice, and to identify the author’s preferred paradigm and provide justification for choosing this paradigm.
With the postmodern turn of nursing a focus on science as a process instead of a product has emerged (Rodgers, B.L., 2015). Postmodernism rejects the idea of a single truth and instead interprets knowledge as more contextual and relative. The discipline of nursing includes components other than just a knowledge base. Emerging within the 21st century, nurses especially involve the human component. Judgments are made about what is acceptable science and current priorities (Rogers, 2015). Previously in nursing, procedures such as medications and dressing changes were priorities. Today, medication and health care is expensive. Consideration must be taken to follow the whole patient, spiritually, emotionally, physically, and
This paper explores Carper’s four fundamental ways of knowing, including its relationship and application to nursing theory. Carper (1978) identifies four ways of knowing as empirical, personal, ethical, and aesthetic. Each is individually important to nursing, but cannot adequately address the fundamental principles of nursing alone. This paper examines each pattern as expressed herein and ensures that all the relevant areas of nursing are attended to in the most professional, competent, and ethical manner.
In the nursing profession we are able to use multiple ways of knowing. We may not use them all at the same time and some more than the others, but we do use them. “Four fundamental patterns of knowing have been identified from an analysis of the conceptual and syntactical structure of nursing knowledge” (Reed & Crawford Shearer, 2012, p. 200). The four patterns of knowing include: empirical, esthetics, personal, and ethical.
Throughout the development of theory in the discipline of nursing there are concepts of knowledge that are fundamental. Four of these patterns of knowing were first explored by Carper (1978) which included: empirical knowing, ethical knowing, personal knowing, and aesthetic knowing. Later, an additional facet was added by Chinn and Kramer (2008) which introduced emancipitory knowing. While all of these forms of knowledge are critical for holistic nursing care, this paper will place an emphasis on personal knowledge and how it contributes to the development of knowledge within nursing and the roles of advanced care practitioners.
A nurse-patient relationship is the basic requirements in all practice settings. Its usage is to manage communication between an organization and a public while maintaining boundaries in the therapeutic relationship. Based on Peplau’s interpersonal theory, communication takes place in a nurse-client relationship where therapeutic process occurs involving complex factors such as environment, attitudes, practices, and beliefs in the dominant culture (seu.edu, 2015). The actions of each person in a nurse-patient relationship is measured on the collaboration of their thoughts, feelings, and experiences. Nurse’s work to attain, maintain, and restore the patient’s health until patient have fulfilled the health care needs. Patient must be guided and provided a well-respected environment until a better health and specific needs are fully considered in the relationship. In this kind of setting, nurse’s must create relationship with patients by communicating receptivity, assimilating the concepts of empathy, trust, genuineness, respect, and confidentiality into their interactions.
When looking at Nursing as a profession, it is important to identify the body of knowledge which pertains to its profession. According to Carper (1978) the body of knowledge that serves as a rationale for nursing practice has patterns, forms and structure. Understanding these patterns is essential for the teaching and learning of nursing as a profession. Carper (1978) identifies four fundamental patterns of knowing and are known to be empirics, ethical, aesthetics and personal knowledge. Chinn & Kramer (2008) added the fifth pattern to knowing called Emancipatory knowing to address the issues of equality and justice. This essay will explain the five ways of knowing and show how it relates to my nursing practice.
So I bring up this controversial topic again, about both mental and physical health and how important it is to take some time out of our crazy busy lives as nurses just to sit with our patients for a few minutes to discuss their pain. By pain, I mean both mental and physical pain. The purpose of this paper is to discuss a situation I was involved in as a nursing student in the clinical setting and how I can critically analyze this situation using Carper’s Fundamental Patterns of Knowing in Nursing (1978). This model has helped many practitioners to consider what they learn throughout reflection on their experience within a holistic way.
Nursing is a unique profession which is built upon theories that guide everyday nursing practice. According to Taylor, Lillis, & Lynn (2015), “Nursing theory differentiates nursing from other disciplines and activities in that it serves the purposes of describing, explaining, predicting, and controlling desired outcomes of nursing care practices” (p. 27). Many nurses may unknowingly apply a theory or a combination thereof, along with critical thinking to get the best outcome for a patient. Theories are used in practice today because they have been supported by research and help the profession uphold its boundaries. Most nursing theories consist of four concepts which are the patient, the environment, health, and nursing. Each patient is at the center of focus and they have the right to determine what care will be given to them using informed