The Florida Indians

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Many of the Florida Indians by the time of the British arrival (1763) were trading for decades with the Spanish and its colonies to the immediate south. The Creek Nation was a loose confederation of disparate Southeastern tribes sharing a common language and matrilineal line. Many of the Creeks who did not share their nation’s policy of trade with the British colonies migrated to new lands in Florida. But despite the geopolitical separation into Spanish territory, many still identified themselves as Creek when the British took over Florida. Creeks negotiated treaties with the French, British, Spanish, and having their multi-ethnic population in their midst, including black Indians who spoke European languages and served as interpreters. There were yet no Seminoles in Florida, just their antecedents that at the time were recognized as Tallasees, Mikasukis, Tohopekaligas, among others, who lived throughout the peninsula. This included other tribes who were later then identified as separate tribes and eventually grouped as Creeks: the Apalachicolas, Cauetas, Yamasees, and Talapuses. While some Oconees in Florida identified themselves as “Simallone” (as a corruption of Seminole – missing “r” in Hitchiti tongue was substituted for an “l”), but the British and subsequently Spain and the United States would mistake all East Florida Indians as Seminole Creeks. The Spanish were still using the term “cimarron” in a very general sense.
While term “Creek” was originally an adopted
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