The Formation of the English Nation and the English Language.

6663 Words Jan 18th, 2013 27 Pages
Lection N 1

The formation of the English Nation and the English Language.

1. Celtic invasion and its influence. 2. Roman invasion and its influence. 3. Anglo-Saxon invasion and its influence. 4. The spread of Christianity. 5. Danish invasion and its influence. 6. Norman invasion and its influence. 7. The formation of the English language. Different borrowings.

1. During the period from the 6th to the 3rd century B.C. a people called the Celts spread across Europe from the east to the west. Some Celtic tribes invaded Britain. Celtic tribes called the Picts penetrated into the mountains on the North; some Picts as well as tribes of Scots crossed over to Ireland and settled there. Later the Scots returned to
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York, Lincoln and London became the chief Roman towns; there were also about 50 other smaller towns. London became a center for trade both by road and river. A network of roads connected all parts of the country. A constant trade was carried on with other parts of the empire. The chief exports were corn, lead, tin and building tiles. But together with a high civilization the Romans brought exploitation and slavery to the British Isles. The free Celts were not turned into slaves, but they had to pay heavy taxes and were made to work for the conquerors. Among the Celts themselves inequality began to grow, the tribal chiefs and nobility became richer than other members of the tribe. Many of them became officials acting for Rome. The noble Celts adopted the mode of life of the Romans. They began to speak Latin. The Romans remained in Britain for about 4 centuries. In the 3rd – 4th centuries the power of the Roman Empire gradually weakened. Early in the 5th century (407) the Roman legions were recalled from Britain to defend the central provinces of the Roman Empire from the attacks of the barbarian tribes. They didn’t return to Britain, and the Celts were left alone in the land. But many words of Modern English have come from Latin. The words, which the Romans left behind them in the language of Britain, are for the most part the names of the things, which they taught the Celts. e.g. The