History of Higher Education in Italy

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The groundwork for higher education in Italy was set back in the Middle Ages, similar to other Western European countries of the period. Clusters of students and scholars originally formed the traditional university in Italy. Collectively they founded the first “universitates studiorum ” in major cities such as Bologna and Paris. However Bologna is thought to be the oldest living institution established in the eleventh century. (MIUR, n.d.)
The University of Bologna claims that the organization of higher education in Italy began when the masters of Grammar, Rhetoric, and Logic devoted their studies to the
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(MIUR, n.d.)
Though the changes brought about by the Higher education reform of 1989 were undoubtedly beneficial an even more substantial reform was passes ten years later and introduced in academic year 2001-2002. The main purpose of the new reform was to grant full sovereignty to universities for management and finance as well as for teaching and course planning. (Esposti, 118)
The new reform was implemented to guarantee both quantity and quality across the board. MURST had determined that it was necessary to review the entire Higher education system as a whole, in light of the current student needs expressed by very different users with different abilities and motivations. Some of the goals set fourth by the new reform included: professional qualifications for faculty and administrators, internationalization, student welfare, innovative teaching methods and enhanced hands-on tutoring for students. (MIUR, n.d.)
Esposti claims that Europe views education as an “active tool in the labor market able to curb unemployment especially among young people, to increase competitiveness and disseminate technology (114).” It appears that Italy has strived to set a number of higher education objectives, which seek to make Italy a strong adversary amongst the other industrialized countries of the European Union. Lastly, to
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