The Four types of Reinforcement

666 WordsFeb 24, 20183 Pages
Everybody has been punished at least once in their life time and we all remember how that one small spanking, time out, or grounding seemed like it was the end of the world. What event caused the punishment, did that event ever occur again? Punishment is a type of reinforcement. The term reinforce means to strengthen, and in Psychology it is used to refer to any stimulus which strengthens the probability of a certain response. There are four types of reinforcement: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment and extinction. Of those four types of reinforcement, punishment is the most effective type if given after an undesired response; it can also be used to teach one a lesson. It lowers the probability that a response will occur again. In operant conditioning, punishment is any change in a human or its surroundings that occurs after a given behavior which minimizes the likelihood of that behavior occurring again. There are two types of punishment: positive punishment and negative punishment. Positive punishment is known as “punishment by application.” This form of punishment involves presenting an aversive stimulus after a behavior has occurred. For example, a puppy does not use the puppy pad and the owner scolds him for it. The second type of punishment, negative punishment, is known as the “punishment by removal.” Negative punishment involves taking away something that is dear to the punished. An example of this type of punishment is a parent
Open Document