The Gender Difference Between Rumination and Reflection

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Gender difference between Rumination and Reflection Abstract This study examined the gender differences between rumination and reflection. Undergraduate psychology students (251 women with the mean age 22.08 and 94 men with the mean age 22.64) were each given a questionnaire to fill out as part of their course requirement. The aim of the study was to examine if there were differences in coping styles between men and women. The hypothesis women would use rumination more as a coping strategy and that men would use reflection more often. The results supported the hypothesis that women tend to use rumination more so than men. Contrary to expectations that men would use reflection…show more content…
' Thayer 's et al '., replica study used the 22-item version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) to measure the students depressive symptoms. 'Thayer, Rossy, Ruiz-Padial and Johnsen (2003) ', also used the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS) ' Solovey et al., (1995, as cited in Thayer et al., 2003) ' which measures emotional regulation. 3 The TMMS is a 30-item self-report measure that is designed to measure participants beliefs about their emotional regulation strategies ( Thayer et al.,). As was expected by Thayer, Rossy, Ruiz-Padial and Johnsen (2003), women reported more depression, sadness, guilt, blame and tiredness. On the TMMS women scored higher then men, showing that women give more attention to their moods and feelings. In further studies conducted by Nolen-Hoeksema and Jackson (2001), it was predicted that there would be gender differences between men and women who believed that their emotions were uncontrollable and that they would more likely engage in rumination. Nolen-Hoeksema and Jackson also predicted that men and women as a group would be more likely than men as a group to have beliefs that centred around societies views that women are more emotionally labile and have less control over their emotions 'Fabes & Martin (1991, as cited in Nolen- Hoeksema & Jackson 2001) ' . Nolen-Hoeksema and Jackson hypothesised that
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