The General Timeline for the Evolution of the Earth Essay

8813 WordsJun 15, 201436 Pages
know the elements of life – and how the reduction and oxidative of some of these drive bioenergetics oxidize carbon (i.e. glucose source) and reduce oxygen (electron acceptor) (CHNOPS) and iron (Fe; trace element; Fe also important to obtain cellular energy). Nutrition: CHNOPS Trace Elements: Iron (Fe), Ni, Mg, Mo, Mn, Ca (important in humans due to osteoblastic activity), Co Occupancy: beat out others for a spot to live, e.g. microbiota (normal flora) Resistance: defend against microbes, eukaryotes and anything taking over your niche; biofilms can contribute to resistance towards antibiotics or antiseptics Energy can be derived from reductive and/or…show more content…
An example of a closed genome is B. anthrasis (Anthrax) Core genomes are the essential genes in all genomes and is conserved across all pathogenic species; these genes are very often involved in metabolism and growth. These genomes hardly change because they are central to the microbe and slight changes may kill the organism. A pan-genome is the entire gene pool for that pathogen species, and includes genes that are not shared by all strains. Pan-genomes may be open or closed depending on whether comparative analysis of multiple strains reveals no new genes (closed) or many new genes (open) compared to the core genome for that pathogen species. Short stuff: Open genome = C. difficile = many different isolates and strains. There are large variations between same genus, species (new genes + core genome). Closed genome = B. anthracis = very, very little variation when different isolated have been sequenced. Pangenome = all the genes that have ever been sequenced from E. coli. Also known as microbial Pangaea. All the genes in that genome. Archaea are usually found in what kind of environments? How does this support Woese’s hypothesis for three domains of life? What does this likely say about early evolution on Earth? They are found in extreme environments exhibiting extreme temperatures, osmotic pressures, pH, and concentrations of inorganic molecules (often toxic to other forms of life). This supports Carl Woese in that he posited that if
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