The Genetic Makeup Of The Organism

935 WordsFeb 17, 20164 Pages
Introduction Whether we become tall, short, have more than 5 fingers, or attached earlobes, is all built on the foundation in our DNA. This deoxyribonucleic acid is built of polymers of nucleic acids.1 Pursuing this further, specific sequences of these nucleic acids produce genes, a unit of heredity transferred from parent to offspring, and alleles, different types of the same gene. These alleles and genes in turn creates each and every one of our traits, whether morphological, physiological, or behavioral. All traits inevitably combine to create a complete set of genetic material, also known as the organism’s genome. 2 The genome in turn creates the organism’s genotype and phenotype. A genotype is simply the genetic makeup of the organism, while the phenotype is the physical and observable expression of this genetic makeup.1 This genotype of organisms can be passed on through mitosis, an asexual process to duplicate and create genetically identical offspring, as well as meiosis, a sexual reproduction that utilizes both male and female parents to increase genetic variation in offspring.1 Most animals reproduce through utilizing meiosis, and there have been several findings to even predict an offspring’s genotype through its parents. The environment has been found to also affect several genes significantly as well. There have been many findings that show the adaptation of genes, its effects on different organisms, and even genetic variation. For example, the D. melanogaster
Open Document