The Genetic Modification Of Organisms

2411 Words10 Pages
Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen first established the Genetic Modification of Organisms in 1973. The successful accomplishment arrived after thousands of years of selective breeding in which farmers used unreliable methods that took many years to achieve the desired characteristic within an organism. However genetic modification allows specific individual genes to be transferred from one organism to another instantly and occurring in the same generation of the organism. The insertion, deletion and mutation of genes allow desirable characteristics to be developed that would be impossible to obtain from selective breeding. Genes carry the information for the necessary characteristics that determines what the organism inherits and through changing or inserting genes; genetic modification allows specific qualities to be produced more accurately. First the chosen DNA must be isolated and copied by either synthesising DNA to insert or by generating a DNA sequence through molecular cloning methods. Genes can be ‘switched’ on or off and can be removed or ‘knocked out’ using nuclease to change the way an organism develops. This allows genes to be transferred from non-related species and by isolating individual genes, scientists could gain high-value medical products form animals in the future. GMO’s are involved throughout society in research, medicine, agriculture and environmental management. This report will investigate the involvement of mammals, microbes, crops and the
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