The Geological History Of The Area

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Part A: Science Understanding 1. Research: Find out about the geological history of the area. (a) What are the main geological features of this area? (Record reliable sources on page 14 in appropriate format.) The Undara lava tubes were formed due to the flow of lava that left behind cooled rock. Remnant dry forests surround the lava tubes. The most prominent feature of Undara is the Undara lava tubes. These lava tubes are some of the longest seen in the world, with some tubes reaching 100km long. In all, there have been over 50 caves recorded in the area. The vast histories of the Undara lava tubes help form many geological features around this area. These features include craters, lava ponds and flows, and perennial springs. The main…show more content…
Include geological ages where possible. (Once again remember to record reliable sources on page 14 in appropriate format.) The Undara lava tubes were formed 190,000 years ago in the Cainozoic period due to large volcanic activity. In this time, Mount Undara had a volcanic eruption that spewed molten lava onto the surrounding landscape. The lava reached 90km North and 160km north west of the volcano. “An estimated 23.3 km3 of lava flowed from the volcano at a rate of about 1000 m3 every second.” (, 2015) The lava that exited the volcano reached extreme temperatures of 1200°C, therefore destroying anything that got in it 's way. The lava tubes were then formed as the “top outer layer cooled and formed a crust while the molten lava below drained outwards leaving behind a series of hollow tubes.” (, 2015) Caves however, have formed due to weaker lava tubes collapsing and creating depressions. The craters seen in Undara have formed from chunks of molten rock imploding the surface of the Earth due to explosions from the Mt Undara volcano. Some of the animals that were on the earth at this time included the sabre tooth tiger, cave bears, woolly mammoths and woolly rhinoceros. At this time, plants had a time to flourish since the extinction of the dinosaurs. “Nearly every plant living today had its roots in the Cainozoic Era.” (, 2015) The same type of plants that are present around the lava tubes today would
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