The start of theater and drama in Ancient Greece took form in about 5th century b.c, with Sophocles being considered the master of tragedy. In his plays and those of the same genre, classic fables that the people of the era knew well were used to tell the stories. The tragic hero’s of these stories often strive to live honorable and righteous lives, but because of some mistake their lives would often great and noble death. The idea that serving the state was proper way to gain honor was a popular belief during this time period. This philosophy was echoed by Plato in his book, the Republic. Plato dealt with establishing the ideal state. The way to achieve the ideal state was through striving for justice. Justice, according to Plato, is doing only the tasks assigned to them by nature. This is the fundamental notion for his creation of an ideal city. It is both knowing what true justice is and where one belongs in the city that the ideal can be achieved. Justice in a city can be found in an individual as well outside the individual because it is a concept that is universal. If a ruler of a state was to maintain order and control over his people
The rulers are the most important and must be brought up with a good moral upbringing. Plato believes that it is necessary to tell the rulers falsehoods in their childhood to have them be gentile to their own people and harmful to their enemies. In order to give them a good moral upbringing Plato states that you need to read them stories about the Gods. But because the ruler can only be subjected to good moral ideas, the evil stories will be overlooked. " Aren't there two kinds of story, one true and the other false?" Socrates states," Yes. And mustn't our men be educated in both, but first in false ones?" Plato thinks that children not be confronted with anything evil until its character is already formed, making the children respect honesty and virtue." The young cant distinguish what is allegorical from what isn't, and the opinions they absorb at that age are hard to erase and apt to become unalternatable. For these reasons, then, we should take the utmost care to insure that the first stories they hear about virtue are the best ones for them to hear."
The Advice of an Akkadian Father to His Son did not just influence his son but many after that. That advice given in 2200 BCE is still used and quoted from in modern day society. It shows how good moral values are timeless because the same morals found in people today are very similar to the values written in cuneiform on a clay tablet back in 2200 BCE. Back then the people of Mesopotamia believed that God would punish them if they did not follow the laws set out or follow the commandments put in place. Shamash, the solar deity in the ancient Semitic religion who was the the god of justice was known to punish those who did not follow the laws or moral values that the Akkadians possessed(Kostas 4).
(DD1) In Mesopotamia, The Hebrew Torah outlines the specific ways for people to live their life to the fullest. One rule explains, “Honor your father and your mother so that your days may be long in the land that Yahweh is giving to you” (Document B). If people honor their parents, then they will somehow be rewarded. If people do not honor their parents, then their days may be cut short as a way of punishment.
Journal 1: Polyphemus handles xenia as as something unnecessary and thinks that it is ridiculous, so he doesn't have to use it. Polyphemus didn't treat Odysseus and his crew like guests, “‘stranger,’ he grumbled back from his brutal heart, ‘you must be a fool, stranger, or come from nowhere, telling telling me to fear the gods or avoid their wrath’” (9.306-308). Polyphemus is arrogant and thinks that xenia is a stupid thing only used by fools, so he doesn't want, or even try to use it. When Odysseus came to Polyphemus, he expected to receive aid and kindness, but was instead reviled, and some of his crew were murdered by the cyclops. Polyphemus was also a bad host because “he lunged out with his hands toward my men and snatching two at once, rapping them on the ground he knocked them dead like pups...he bolted them down like a mountain lion, left no scrap” (9.324-329). Polyphemus is full of gluttony and malice and is cruel to Odysseus and his men by making them watch him eat their friends. If he was using xenia, Polyphemus would have cared about how the men were treated, and he would not have eaten the men, no matter how much he wanted to. Polyphemus is disgracing the gods by not using xenia, and thinks that it is unnecessary.
The most familiar version of the Golden Rule says, “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.” This concept occurs in some form in nearly every religion and ethical tradition.
We have been taught at a young age to be obedient to the people that give us the rules. We are taught to follow those rules, and if we disobey those rules we shall be punished.
The Divine Command Theory is the assertion in ethics that an action is morally right if, and only if, it conforms to God’s will. This premise ties together morality and religion in a manner that seems expected, since it provides a solution to arguments about moral relativism and the objectivity of ethics. On the other hand, in Plato’s Euthyphro, Socrates questions whether something is right because God commands it, or whether God commands it because it is right. The ethical implications of the Euthyphro problem suggest that the relationship between morality and religion might not be as straightforward as suggested by the Divine Command Theory.
Xenia, the Greek concept of hospitality and guest-host relationship, was an important tradition that almost everyone lives by. One example of Homeric Greeks that followed Xenia were the Phaeacians. The Phaeacians had complied with the tradition by hosting Odysseus on their island. Another example of someone who follows Xenia are the Pylians, who had greeted Telemachus and treated him with the proper respect that Xenia demands. Although many follow Xenia, there are those who do not.
A few thousand years ago, three sets of laws were composed that show remarkable similarities in their instructions on how to live a moral and righteous life. Although they were written hundreds of miles apart from each other, and in totally different cultures and civilizations, the Edicts of Ashoka, the Bible, and Hammurabi’s Code all elucidate the moral principles of self-control, justice, and abstention from harming living beings.
“Every life is march from innocence, through temptation, to virtue or vice” (Lyman Abbott). The outcomes of temptation are always black and white, yet throughout the process, it is not as easy to see the right from wrong. Temptation is one of the few things in life that no one can avoid and only few can escape. Everyone confronts temptation daily and more often than not, give in to it. Temptation itself is not a bad thing.
In his work Euthyphro, Plato introduces a religiously based moral code. This code, the divine command theory, stresses the pleasing of god in one’s moral actions. Plato’s characters, Euthyphro and Socrates, take turns in a debate defending and criticizing this theory. Its flawed nature is uncovered and we as readers are able to notice its advantages and disadvantages. Using these criticisms, revisions to the divine command theory have been made. After analyzing the divine command theory and noting both its advantages and its critiques, I largely agree with the criticisms that are made about it. However, with certain revisions, it can be transformed into a reliable and successful philosophy.
Compliance with divine law was important in ancient Greek society. Faith in the gods was a deeply rooted concept that individuals took seriously. Examples of this can be seen in the role of oracles and seers. Oracles were establishments where people often
In ancient times, it was said that a ruler should behave according to the standards and regulations set forth by the word of God. There was an absolute standard of justice that people had to follow. The ruler or sovereign was taught to act morally in order to be successful and gain spiritual happiness; morality and politics were unified, religion played an important role in the decision making. A ruler had to act accordingly based on the standards and moral ideas of ancient civilizations and the government, this meant, recognizing that there was an absolute right and an absolute wrong. The ruler and society as a whole, in ancient times, were preoccupied with their afterlife and wanting to achieve a better spiritual life by acting